# St Olave s Grammar School Physics AS Level and Year 12 End of Year Examination Revision Checklist 2018

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1 St Olave s Grammar School Physics AS Level and Year 12 End of Year Examination 2018 In addition to this revision checklist, Kerboodle Study Guides can be accessed by following this link: ,100531,100532,100533,100534,100535,100536,100537,100538,100539

2 Module 1 - Practical skills a Can you design experiments, including ones to solve problems set in a practical context? b Can you identify the variables that must be controlled in an experiment? c Can you evaluate whether an experimental method is appropriate to meet expected outcomes? a Can you use a wide range of practical apparatus and techniques correctly? b Can you use appropriate units to take measurements? c Can you present observations and data in an appropriate format? a Can you process, analyse and interpret qualitative and quantitative experimental results? b Can you use appropriate mathematical skills for analysis of quantitative data? c Can you use significant figures appropriately? d Can you plot and interpret suitable graphs from experimental results? d i Can you select and label axes with appropriate scales, quantities, and units? d ii Can you measure gradients? a Can you evaluate results and draw conclusions? 2

3 1.1.4 b Can you identify anomalies in experimental measurements? c Can you explain the limitations in experimental procedures? d e Can you be precise and accurate with measurements and data, including margins of error, percentage errors and uncertainties in apparatus? Can you refine experimental design by suggesting improvements to the procedures and apparatus? 3

4 Module 2 - Foundations of physics a Can you explain that physical quantities have a numerical value and a unit? b Can you estimate physical quantities? a Can you describe the Système Internationale (S.I.) base quantities and their units mass (kg), length (m), time (s), current (A), temperature (K), amount of substance (mol)? b Can you use derived units of S.I. base units? c Can you use the all the units you have encountered in the course? d Can you check the homogeneity of physical equations using S.I. base units? e Can you use prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal submultiples or multiples of units pico (p), nano (n), micro (μ), milli (m), centi (c), deci (d), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T)? f Can you use conventions for labelling graph axes and table columns? a Can you identify systematic errors (including zero errors) and random errors in measurements? b Can state the difference between precision and accuracy? c Can you explain absolute and percentage uncertainties when data are combined by addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and raising to powers? d Can you identify graphical treatment of errors and uncertainties; line of best fit; worst line; absolute and percentage uncertainties; percentage difference? 4

5 2.3.1 a Can you use scalar and vector quantities? b Can you use vector addition and subtraction? c d Can you use a vector triangle to determine the resultant of any two coplanar vectors? Can you resolve a vector into two perpendicular components; F x = F cos θ and F y = F sin θ? 5

6 Module Motion a Can you define displacement, instantaneous speed, average speed, velocity, and acceleration? b Can you interpret graphical representations of displacement, speed, velocity, and acceleration? c Can you draw displacement time graphs and calculate velocity from the gradient? d Can you interpret velocity time graphs, where acceleration is the gradient and displacement is the area under the graph? a i Can you use the equations of motion for constant acceleration in a straight line, including motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance? a ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to investigate the motion and collisions of objects? b i Can you define acceleration g of free fall? b ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to determine the acceleration of free fall using a trapdoor and electromagnet arrangement or light gates and a timer? c Can you define what is meant by reaction time and thinking distance; and calculate braking distance and stopping distance for a vehicle? a Can you explain the independence of the vertical and horizontal motion of a projectile? 6

7 3.1.3 b Can you describe the two-dimensional motion of a projectile with constant velocity in one direction and constant acceleration in a perpendicular direction? 7

8 Module Forces in action a Can you recall and understand the formula net force = mass acceleration (F = m a)? b Can you recall the newton as the unit of force? c Can you explain why the weight of an object, W = m g? d Can you define and use the terms tension, normal contact force, upthrust, and friction? e Can you draw and interpret free-body diagrams? f Can you explain one- and two-dimensional motion under constant force? a Can you explain drag as the frictional force experienced by an object travelling through a fluid? b Can you describe the factors affecting drag for an object travelling through air? c Can you describe the motion of objects falling in a uniform gravitational field in the presence of drag? d i Can you define terminal velocity? d ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to determine terminal velocity in fluids? a Can you define the moment of a force? 8

9 3.2.3 b Can you describe a couple and the torque of a couple? c Can you define and use the principle of moments? d e Can you describe centre of mass/centre of gravity, and describe how to determine the centre of gravity experimentally? Can you describe the conditions for equilibrium of an object under the action of forces and torques? f Can you explain the conditions for equilibrium of three coplanar forces? a Can you define density? b Can you describe pressure for solids, liquids, and gases? c Can you apply Archimedes principle and use the equation p = h ρ g to calculate the upthrust acting on an object in a fluid? 9

10 Module Work, energy, and power a Can you define work done by a force and recall that the unit for work done is the joule? b Can you use W = F x cos θ to calculate the work done by a force? c Can you define and apply the principle of conservation of energy? d Can you describe and carry out calculations for situations involving the transfer of energy between different forms? e Can you explain how transfer of energy is equal to work done? a Can you define and calculate the kinetic energy of an object? b Can you define and calculate the gravitational potential energy of an object in a uniform gravitational field? c Can you describe the exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy? a Can you define and calculate power, and recall that the unit for power is the watt? b Can you use the equation P = F v? c Can you calculate the efficiency of a mechanical system? 10

11 Module Materials a Can you define and describe tensile and compressive deformation, and extension and compression? b Can you state Hooke s law? c Can you determine the force constant k of a spring or wire using F = k x? d i Can you sketch and interpret force extension (or compression) graphs for springs and wires? d ii Can you describe techniques and procedures used to investigate force extension characteristics for arrangements which may include springs, rubber bands, and polythene strips? a Can you use a force extension (or compression) graph to determine the work done in extending (or compressing) the material? b Can you calculate elastic potential energy using E = 1 F x and E = k x 2? c Can you define stress, strain, and ultimate tensile strength? d i Can you calculate the Young modulus of a material using tensile stress and tensile strain? d ii Can you describe techniques and procedures used to determine the Young modulus for a metal? e Can you interpret and sketch stress strain graphs for typical ductile, brittle, and polymeric materials? 11

12 3.4.2 f Can you describe elastic and plastic deformations of materials? 12

13 Module Laws of motion and momentum a i Can you use the equations of motion for constant acceleration in a straight line, including motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field without air resistance? a Can you explain Newton s three laws of motion? b Can you calculate linear momentum and understand the vector nature of momentum? c Can you understand that net force = rate of change of momentum? d Can you describe and calculate the impulse of a force? e Can you recall that impulse is equal to the area under a force time graph? a Can you define the principle of conservation of momentum? b Can you describe and carry out calculations for collisions and interactions of bodies in one dimension and in two dimensions? c Can you describe perfectly elastic collisions and inelastic collisions? 13

14 Module Charge and current a Can you define electric current as rate of flow of charge? b Can you describe the coulomb as the unit of charge? c Can you recall the elementary charge e equals C? d Can you explain why the net charge on a particle or an object is quantised and a multiple of e? e Can you explain current as the movement of electrons in metals and movement of ions in electrolytes? f Can you describe the difference between conventional current and electron flow? g Can you recall and apply Kirchhoff s first law? a Can you describe what is meant by mean drift velocity of charge carriers? b Can you carry out calculations using I = A n e v, where n is the number density of charge carriers? c Can you explain the distinction between conductors, semiconductors, and insulators in terms of n? 14

15 Module Energy, power, and resistance a Can you recognise and draw circuit symbols? b Can you draw circuit diagrams using circuit symbols? a Can you define potential difference (p.d.) and the unit volt? b Can you describe the electromotive force (e.m.f.) of a source such as a cell or a power supply? c Can you explain the distinction between e.m.f. and p.d. in terms of energy transfer? d Can you describe and calculate energy transfer using W = V Q and W = E Q? e Can you describe and calculate energy transfer using ev = and other charged particles? 1 m v 2 for electrons a Can you define resistance and the unit ohm? b Can you explain Ohm's law? c i Can you describe the I V characteristics of the resistor, filament lamp, thermistor, diode, and light-emitting diode (LED)? c ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to investigate the electrical characteristics for a range of ohmic and non-ohmic components? 15

16 4.2.3 d Can you explain the variation of resistance with light intensity for a lightdependent resistor (LDR)? a i Can you explain the resistivity of a material and use the equation R ρl? A a ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to determine the resistivity of a metal? b c Can you explain how resistivity varies with temperature for metals and semiconductors? Can you explain how resistance varies with temperature for a negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistor? a Can you use the equations P = V I, P = I 2 R and P 2 V? R b Can you describe energy transfer using the equation W = V I t? c Can you describe the kilowatt-hour (kw h) as a unit of energy and calculate the cost of energy? 16

17 Module Electrical circuits a Can you explain Kirchhoff s second law and the conservation of energy? b Can you describe Kirchhoff s first and second laws applied to electrical circuits? c Can you determine the total resistance of two or more resistors in series using R = R 1 + R 2 +? d Can you determine the total resistance of two or more resistors in parallel using 1 1 R R 1 R ? e Can you analyse circuits with components both in series and in parallel? f Can you analyse circuits with more than one source of e.m.f.? a Can you define source of e.m.f. and internal resistance? b Can you define terminal p.d. and lost volts? c i Can you use the equations Ɛ = I (R + r) and Ɛ = V + I r? c ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to determine the internal resistance of a chemical cell or other source of e.m.f.? a Can you analyse a potential divider circuit with components? b Can you use potential divider circuits with variable components, e.g., LDRs and thermistors? 17

18 c i Can you use potential divider equations V V and out in R 1 R R 2 V R 1 1? V 2 R c ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to investigate potential divider circuits which may include a sensor such as a thermistor or a LDR? 18

19 Module Waves a Can you describe progressive waves, both longitudinal and transverse? b i Can you define displacement, amplitude, wavelength, period, phase difference, frequency, and speed of a wave? b ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to use an oscilloscope to determine frequency? c Can you use the equation f 1? T d Can you use the wave equation v = f λ? e Can you produce graphical representations of transverse and longitudinal waves? f i Can you describe reflection, refraction, polarisation, and diffraction of all waves? f ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to demonstrate wave effects using a ripple tank? f iii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to observe polarising effects using microwaves and light? g Can you describe and determine the intensity of a progressive wave using and intensity (amplitude) 2? I P A a Can you describe the electromagnetic spectrum and the properties of electromagnetic waves? 19

20 4.4.2 b Can you describe the orders of magnitude of wavelengths of the principal radiations from radio waves to gamma rays? c Can you describe plane polarised waves and polarisation of electromagnetic waves? d i Can you describe refraction of light with to the refractive index? d i Can you carry out calculations using the refraction law n sin θ = k? d ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to investigate refraction and total internal reflection of light using ray boxes, and transparent rectangular and semi-circular blocks? e Can you define and calculate the critical angle using sin C 1? n e Can you describe the conditions needed for total internal reflection to occur? 20

21 Module 4.4 (Part 2) - Waves a i Can you explain the principle of superposition of waves? a ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used for superposition experiments using sound, light, and microwaves? b Can you use graphical methods to illustrate the principle of superposition? c Can you define interference, coherence, path difference, and phase difference? d Can you describe constructive interference and destructive interference in terms of path difference and phase difference? e Can you describe two-source interference for sound and microwaves? f Can you explain the Young double-slit experiment using visible light? g i Can you use a x λ for all waves where a << D? D g ii Can you list and describe techniques and procedures used to determine the wavelength of light using a double-slit and a diffraction grating? a Can you describe stationary (standing) waves using microwaves, stretched strings, and air columns? b Can you interpret and produce graphical representations of a stationary wave? c Can you describe the similarities and the differences between stationary and progressive waves? 21

22 4.4.4 d Can you describe nodes and antinodes? e i Can you describe stationary wave patterns for a stretched string, and air columns in closed and open tubes? e ii f g Can you list and explain techniques and procedures used to determine the speed of sound in air by formation of stationary waves in a resonance tube? Can you explain the idea that the separation between adjacent nodes (or antinodes) is equal to λ, where λ is the wavelength of the progressive wave? 2 Can you define the fundamental mode of vibration (1st harmonic) and describe different harmonics? 22

23 Module Quantum physics a Can you explain the particulate nature (photon model) of electromagnetic radiation? b Can you define a photon as a quantum of energy of electromagnetic radiation? c Can you describe and calculate the energy of a photon using E = h f and? E h c λ d Can you define the electronvolt (ev) as a unit of energy? e i Can you use LEDs and the equation Planck constant h? h c ev to estimate the value of the λ e ii Can you determine the Planck constant using different coloured LEDs? a i Can you explain the photoelectric effect, including a simple experiment to demonstrate this effect? a ii Can you demonstrate the photoelectric effect using, for example, a gold-leaf electroscope and zinc plate? b Can you describe the one-to-one interaction between a photon and a surface electron? c Can you explain Einstein s photoelectric equation h f = ɸ + KE max? d Can you define work function and threshold frequency? 23

24 4.5.2 e Can you explain the idea that the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is independent of the intensity of the incident radiation? f Can you explain the idea that a rate of emission of photoelectrons above the threshold frequency is directly proportional to the intensity of the incident radiation? a Can you explain electron diffraction, including experimental evidence of this effect? b Can you describe diffraction of electrons travelling through a thin slice of polycrystalline graphite? c Can you use the de Broglie equation λ h? p 24

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