Cellular Energetics Review

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1 Cellular Energetics Review 1. What two molecules are formed when a phosphate is removed from ATP? 2. Describe how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are reverse processes. 3. What is the function of ATP? Describe the molecule. 4. Describe how ADP is converted into ATP. 5. Differentiate between oxidation and reduction reactions. 6. Why is an electron transport system important to living organisms? 7. Why are oxidation reactions often associated with the production of ATP? 8. In the reaction ADP + P forms ATP is energy stored or released? 9. Compare and contrast ATP production in anaerobic versus aerobic environments. 10. The primary source of energy for the cell is (a) starch (b) cellulose (c) glucose (d) ATP (e) sunlight 11. Compare and contrast alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, and glycolysis. 12. Why must glycolysis occur before the steps of aerobic respiration can begin? 13. What is the purpose of the phosphorylation of glucose in glycolysis? 14. Why is phosphofructokinase important? 15. As glucose is broken down into pyruvate, the hydrogen atoms and their electrons are picked up by (a) NAD (b) NAD+ (c) NADP+ (d) NADP 16. Explain how the Krebs cycle contributes to the production of ATP. 17. Explain how energy is released in useful packets through the ETC. 18. What molecule carries the hydrogen and electrons removed from glucose? 19. When do animal cells perform photosynthesis? 20. When do plant cells perform photosynthesis? 21. When do animal cells perform cellular respiration? 22. When do plant cells perform cellular respiration? 23. The removal of carbon dioxide from pyruvate distinguishes fermentation from lactic acid anaerobic respiration. What would occur if an enzyme in your body removed the carbon dioxide from pyruvic acid before lactic acid formed? 24. Under what conditions does lactic acid fermentation occur in muscles? How can we tell that the fermentation is occurring? 25. Complete the chart below: Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Net amount of ATP produced Terminal electron acceptor Location in cell Final products 26. What kind of fermentation do yeast perform? 27. What are the waste products of yeast fermentation? 28. If yeast cells were large organisms, they could not live anaerobically. Explain. 29. What are the waste products of cellular respiration? 30. Where in the cell does the ETC occur? 31. Describe the role of NADH in cells. 32. What happens to the NADH produced by yeast cells that are living in anaerobic conditions? 33. Identify the use of each of the reactants in cellular respiration and the source of each of the products. 34. What is the meaning of the word photosynthesis? 35. What are the end products of photosynthesis?

2 36. What is a photon? 37. Why are leaves green? 38. Which organisms are responsible for carrying out the most photosynthesis on the earth? 39. The energy conversion in photosynthesis occurs in three stages. What are they? 40. State the four factors that must be present to begin the process of photosynthesis. 41. Summarize the events of the light reactions. 42. What are the products of the light reactions? 43. In what part of the chloroplast do the light reactions take place? 44. Where in the chloroplast is chlorophyll located? 45. What is the term for the stacks of disks seen in plants? 46. What is the term for the fluid surrounding these stacks? 47. What function is served by chlorophyll? 48. What molecule carries hydrogen and electrons during photosynthesis? 49. Where in the chloroplast does the ETC occur? 50. Where does the Calvin cycle occur? 51. What is the function of the Calvin cycle? 52. State the products of the Calvin cycle. 53. Carbon fixation changes into. 54. What is the source of the oxygen released during photosynthesis? 55. Where does the carbon for making glucose come from? 56. What is the purpose of the electron transport chain in photosynthesis? 57. How do the electrons accepted by the ETC become high energy? 58. Where in the cell does the ETC occur? 59. What is the source of electrons to replace those lost from photosystem II? 60. What is the source of electrons to replace those lost from photosystem I? 61. What happens to the ATP produced in chloroplasts? 62. Why does the primary electron acceptor have to be so close to chlorophyll? 63. When plants photosynthesize, they always make more glucose than they require for food. Explain. 64. How are the general formulas for photosynthesis and cellular respiration related? 65. What is the immediate energy source for the Calvin cycle? 66. What final product in carbon fixation is used to make glucose? 67. If you illuminate a solution of chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, and water in a glass vessel, will the mixture produce sugar? Explain. 68. The movement of water through vascular plants is important to their survival. a. Explain the mechanism of water movement through vascular plants during transpiration. Include a discussion of how the anatomy of vascular plants and the properties of water contribute to this process. b. Explain how gas exchange affects transpiration. 69. Discuss the role of pigments both in capturing light energy and in converting it to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH. 70. ATP and GTP are primary sources of energy for biochemical reactions. a. Describe the structure of the ATP or GTP molecule. b. Explain how chemiosmosis produces ATP. c. Describe two specific cell processes that require ATP and explain how ATP is used in each process. 71. Complete the summary diagram of cellular respiration.

3 72. What is chemiosmosis and apply it to the diagram below. 73. Label the diagram below of the activities occurring on the ECT.

4 74. Label the diagram below to summarize the activities in the light reactions of photosynthesis.

5 The test will have one long and two short essays. The possible topics for the long essay include: Factors affecting cellular respiration (think about the pea lab) Enzyme catalyzed reactions Light vs dark reactions in photosynthesis The possible topics for the shorter essays include: Pigments ATP Transpiration The role of the membrane in cellular respiration and photosynthesis