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1 Vocab Cell Energy 1. Autotroph 2. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) 3. Chloroplast 4. Photosynthesis 5. Pigment 6. Chlorophyll 7. Thylakoid 8. Photosystem 9. Stroma 10. Light-dependent reactions 11. Calvin Cycle 12. Heterotroph 13. calorie 14. Glycolysis 15. Cellular respiration 16. Mitochondrion 17. Fermentation 18. Anaerobic 19. Aerobic 20. Krebs cycle 21. Electron transport chain

2 Draw, label, and color 1) Chloroplast fig 8-6 p 208 2) A diagram of photosynthesis overview fig 8-7 p 209 1) Mitochondria fig 9-1 p 221 2) A diagram of cellular respiration overview fig 9-2 p 222

3 Cell energy Essential Questions 1. How are autotrophic and heterotrophic cells alike and different? 2. Describe how photosynthesis is responsible for the growth of a tree. 3. How are photosynthesis and Respiration alike and different?

4 Energy Autotrophs convert sunlight or inorganic compounds to carbohydrates (food). These are the producers Heterotrophs obtain their food by eating or taking living material. These are our consumers.

5 Characteristics that autotrophs and heterotrophs have in common Living Need food/energy Need air and water Use cellular respiration They are connected in the circle of life.

6 Differences between autotrophs and heterotrophs Autotrophs convert light to carbs (photosysnthesis). Heterotrophs can not. Autotrophs are producers. Heterotrophs are consumers Common autotrophs are plants. Common heterotrophs are animals.

7

8 Photosynthesis van Helmont Priestly Ingenhousz

9 van Helmont discovered that plant mass did not come from soil. He concluded that plant mass derives from water.

10 Priestly identified that a plant changed the composition of air.

11 Ingenhousz discovered that light was important to the chemical reactions.

12

13 Photosynthesis converts water, carbon dioxide, and light energy into chemical energy and oxygen Plants and plant like organisms perform photosynthesis. Connects all life on earth to the sun.

14 The chloroplast is the organelle in cells where photosynthesis occurs

15 Photosynthesis makes carbs Carbs are used to make ATP ATP is used to power all of the essential life sustaining processes performed by the cell. Allows an acorn to grow into a massive oak tree.

16 Light is absorbed by chlorophyll In the chloroplast In the leaf On the plant Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2

17 Plants are green because green light is reflected by chlorophyll. Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a V B G YO R

18 Rate of photosynthesis Things that influence the rate of photosynthesis 1. Availability of water 2. Temperature 3. Intensity of light

19 Water is needed for photosynthesis. More water more photosynthesis. Less water less photosynthesis 19

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22 2 stages of Photosynthesis 1.The light dependent reactions 2.The light independent reactions (Dark)(The Calvin Cycle)

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24 Draw, label, and color 1) Chloroplast fig 8-6 p 208 2) A diagram of photosynthesis overview fig 8-7 p 209

25 The light dependent reactions Occur in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast Reactants: Water Light Products include: oxygen gas ATP and NADPH

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27

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29 The light independent reactions AKA: the Calvin cycle or the dark cycle. Occur in the stroma These reactions can occur in the absence of light. Reactants CO 2 ATP and NADPH from the light cycle Products High energy sugars (carbohydrates)

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31

32 Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ATP is the principal compound that all cells use for energy It stores energy Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups

33 ADP ATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery

34 Draw, label, and color 1) Mitochondria fig 9-1 p 221 2) A diagram of cellular respiration overview fig 9-2 p 222

35 Cellular Respiration Process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen (aerobic) plants and animals carry out the final stages of respiration in their mitochondria. How all eukaryotes get most of their ATP energy. Involves Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, and the ETC. 1 g. of glucose = 3811 calories

36 Calorie vs calorie Units of energy calorie is the amount of energy need to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius gram calorie Calorie is the food calorie or Kilocalorie 1Calorie = 1000 calories

37 The aerobic process Most efficient in the production of ATP Glycolysis has net gain of 2 ATP Krebs cycle and ETC has net gain of 34 ATP The anerobic process Fermentation w/glycolysis has net gain of 2 ATP Incomplete breakdown of glucose

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39 Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

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41 Glycolysis In the cytoplasm Starts the breakdown of glucose One molecule of glucose is broken in half. Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain

42 Uses; Glucose 2 ATP Glycolysis Produces 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 2 NADH 4 ATP When oxygen is present the pyruvic acid and the NADH is then passed to the mitochondria

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44 Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

45 The entire break down of a glucose molecule in the presence of oxygen produces 36 ATP. Most of which is produced in the Mitochondrion Glycolysis only uses about 10% of the energy in glucose. Glycolysis Krebs cycle ETC, results in the complete break down of glucose.

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47 Krebs Cycle Aerobic process Also called the citric acid cycle First compound formed in the cycle Occurs within the matrix of mitochondria Pyruvic acid is broken down to make carbon dioxide (3 molecules). Also NADH(4), FADH 2 (1), and ATP(1) The NADH and FADH 2 move to the Electron transport chain (ETC)

48 Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

49 Citric Acid Production Mitochondrion

50

51

52

53 Electron Transport Chain Process occurs in the inner membrane Uses the NADH and FADH 2 to convert ADP into ATP Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production

54 3 molecules /step

55 Electrons carried in NADH Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Glucose Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

56 Anaerobic pathyways for ATP Fermentation Releases energy from food in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic) Two types alcohol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.

57 Alcohol fermentation produces alcohol and carbon dioxide Process found in plant and single cell organisms Used in brewing, baking, and fuel making Lactic Acid fermentation produces lactic acid and carbon dioxide Process found in animals

58 Glucose Pyruvic acid Lactic acid 3 sources of ATP in animals Lactic Acid Fermentation Cellular Respiration ATP stores

59 Anaerobic activities 90 secs Rely on lactic acid Put the cell in oxygen debt Aerobic activities Longer than 90 sec. Rely on cellular respiration After about 15 mins. Stored fats and carbs are burned

60 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Opposites Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy (capture energy) Builds carbs Cellular respiration converts chemical energy into cellular energy (releases energy) Reduces carbs to release energy to change ADP ATP

61 Snail Elodea

62 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Opposites Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy (capture energy) Builds carbs Cellular respiration converts chemical energy into cellular energy (releases energy) Reduces carbs to release energy to change ADP ATP

63 Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration Photosynthesis Energy capture Occurs in chloroplast Reactants are water and carbon dioxide Products are oxygen and carbohydrates Cellular respiration Energy release Occurs in mitochondria Reactants are Oxygen and carbohydrates Products are water and carbon dioxide Both Chemical reactions Occur in stages or steps Vital to life on earth Interconnected reactants & products

64 Chlorophyll CO 2 + H 2 O + Light Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 A CO 2 + H 2 O + Cell Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 C This equation represents photosynthesis. This equation represents cellular respiration. What is being represented by letter B? What is being represented by letter D? What happens to the energy as you move from B to C to D?

65 Two test tubes contain a water plant and water. Several drops of bromthymol blue (BTB) are added to each test tube. Then carbon dioxide is added to it turning it a greenish color. Tube A is then placed in a sunny window and tube B is placed in a cupboard B A Acid carbon dioxide Neutral Base carbon dioxide

66 Photosynthesis includes use Lightdependent reactions take place in takes place in Calvin cycle uses Energy from sunlight Thylakoid membranes Stroma ATP NADPH to produce of to produce ATP NADPH O 2 Chloroplasts High-energy sugars

67

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