Unit 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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1 Unit 3: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Bell Ringer Answer Daily Goal HOMEWORK Bell Ringer Answer Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Daily Goal HOMEWORK Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Bell Ringer Answer Daily Goal HOMEWORK 1

2 Bell Ringer Answer Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Daily Goal HOMEWORK Bell Ringer Answer Monday/Tuesday Wednesday/Thursday Friday Daily Goal HOMEWORK Goals: -5: Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. -7: Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. -3: Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. 2

3 Vocab: Aerobic respiration: A cellular process that requires oxygen to produce energy from organic compounds. Anaerobic respiration: A cellular process that does NOT require oxygen to produce energy from organic compounds. Electron transport chain: Uses high energy electrons to convert ADP to ATP. Krebs (Citric Acid Cycle: Uses pyruvic acid from glycolysis to generate energy during the process of aerobic respiration Cellular respiration: Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen to produce ATP Light dependent: The first stage of photosynthesis occurring in the thylakoid membranes that captures energy from light and drives the production of ATP Light independent (Calvin): A chemical reaction that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose. These reactions occur in the stroma, the fluid-filled area of a chloroplast outside of the thylakoid membranes Glycolysis: First stage of cellular respiration that break downs glucose releasing energy and pyruvic acid Photosynthesis: Process by which plants use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and sugar ATP: Energy molecule that all cells use to store and release energy Chlorophyll: A pigment in the chloroplast of plants that captures light energy. Stroma: Liquid outside the thylakoid membranes in chloroplast. Location of the Calvin Cycle Thylakoid: Stacks of sac-like membranes in chloroplast. Location of light dependent reaction Fermentation: Process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen. Two types: Lactic acid and alcoholic Roots: Underground organ in plants that absorbs water and minerals Stems: Supporting structure that connects roots and leaves and carries water and nutrients between them Leaves: Portion of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis Flowers: Seed bearing structure of the plant Dermal Tissue: Outer tissue of the plant, made of epidermal cells Ground Tissue: Middle tissue, important for photosynthesis, storage and support 3

4 Vascular Tissue: Plant tissue that conducts water and nutrients throughout the plant Xylem: Vascular tissue that carries water upward from roots Phloem: Vascular tissue that carries nutrients and carbohydrates from photosynthesis AUTOTROPH vs. HETEROTROPH Autotroph: o Example: Plants Heterotroph: o Example: Humans ATP Stands for Adenosine Triphosphate Store energy: Release energy: PHOTOSYNTHESIS Uses the energy from sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen Equation: Leaf Importance: Acts as a specialized system for photosynthesis Tissues: : Outermost covering of the leaf, waxy : Transport system that moves nutrients in and out of the cell *Xylem & Phloem : Lie between the dermal and vascular tissue : Responsible for growth 4

5 Which organelle do plants use to get energy from the sun? *Chloropyll: Stoma: o This is how plants get CO2 and O2 in and out o Plural is o Consist of two guard cells They control & Remain open if Label the Stomata, Epidermal Cell and Guard Cell Electron carriers: NADP+ & FADH o Sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll Used for electron transport In the space below, sketch how NADP+ acts as an electron carrier 5

6 STEPS OF Photosynthesis Step 1: Light-Dependent reactions o Use energy from light to o 3 steps: o Photosystem II: 1. Energized electrons 2. Hydrogen ions (H+) 3. Oxygen (O2) Photosystem II Label A, B & C in the diagram: A: B: C: o Electron Transport Chain: Electron Transport Chain Label D in the diagram: D: 6

7 o Photosynthesis I: Electrons get re-energized Photosystem I Label E, F, G & H in the diagram: E: F: G: H: Light-Dependent Reactions How to get ATP from the Light-Dependent reactions? o o They flow through a pump called and make ATP 7

8 Step 2: Calvin Cycle o Uses & from light-dependent reactions to make high-energy sugars o enter the cycle o (gives energy) goes in & (donates electrons) goes in o exits the cycle Label the arrows going in and out of the Calvin Cycle What are some things that can limit photosynethsis? Review: 1. What are the two steps in photosynthesis? i. ii. 2. What are the 3 components of step 1 in photosynthesis? i. ii. iii. 8

9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Interpretation summary: Cell Respiration: o Releases energy by in the presence of oxygen Aerobic o Responsible for most of our stored energy o! o Equation: o Step 1: Glycolysis One molecule of glucose -> two molecules of Release & DRAW 9

10 o Step 2: Krebs Cycle is broken down into CO2 High energy electrons are picked up by carriers and taken to DRAW o Step 3: Electron Transport Chain Uses electrons from Krebs cycle to ATP synthase O2 is the final electron acceptor makes Most amount of is made in this step DRAW Photosynthesis vs. Cellular Respiration 10

11 FERMENTATION Release food energy from food molecules by making without o (without oxygen) Two types: o o : o Yeast and other microorganisms Products are & as waste o Causes bread dough to rise o amount of ATP is made o Equation: : converting pyruvic acid into lactic acid o Examples: o amount of ATP is made o Equation: Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Respiration 11

12 TEST REVIEW 1. Give an example of an autotroph: 2. Give an example of a heterotroph: 3. In addition to light & chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires: 4. The products of photosynthesis are: 5. What organelle contains chlorophyll? 6. The first process in the light-dependent reactions is: 7. Which substance from the light-dependent reactions are a source of energy for the Calvin cycle? 8. The Calvin cycle is also called: 9. Use the analogy of a battery to explain how energy is stored and release from ATP: 10. Sketch and label the structures of a chloroplast: 11. What 3 factors can affect the rate of photosynthesis? 12. What is the equation for photosynthesis? 13. Label the components of photosynthesis 12

13 14. The first step in releasing energy from glucose in the cell is called: 15. The process of releasing energy from food in the presence of oxygen is called: 16. What organisms can perform cellular respiration? 17. Because fermentation takes place in the absence of oxygen, it is said to be: 18. The Krebs cycle takes place within the: 19. The electron transport chain uses high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle to : 20. How is glucose changed during glycolysis? What products are produced as a result? 21. What are the 2 pathways that might follow glycolysis? What factor determine which of those pathways the cell should follow? 22. What is the equation for cellular respiration? 23. Sketch and label the parts of a mitochondria: 24. Sketch and label the process of cellular respiration: 13

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