Cell Energy: Photosynthesis & Respiration

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1 Cell Energy: Photosynthesis & Respiration

2 Today s Learning Goals In plants, chlorophyll (found in chloroplasts) captures energy from the sun in order to make food during photosynthesis (Review) Cells release energy from food through either cellular respiration or fermentation Why it matters: Understanding how plants & animals get energy to grow & develop is an important part of biology.

3 How Does a Plant Make Its Own Food? (REVIEW) Plants use carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), water (H 2 O), and sun s energy to make food. This is called photosynthesis The food gives plants energy Animals get the energy stored in plants when they eat them.

4 How Do Plants Get Energy From Sun? (REVIEW) Plants have pigments that absorb energy from light Chlorophyll (found in chloroplasts) is the pigment used in photosynthesis

5 What Food do Plants Make? The food plants make is a sugar called glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ). Glucose and oxygen (O 2 ) are made during photosynthesis. (REVIEW)

6 How Do Organisms Get Energy From Food? Animals cannot make their own food like plants can. But, BOTH plants and animals must break down (digest) food in order to get energy from it (so they can live, grow, & develop) Cells do this 2 ways: cellular respiration and fermentation

7 Cellular Respiration Produces ATP Energy obtained from food must be transferred into ATP. This is done through cellular respiration. Oxygen speeds up the process = AEROBIC Can be done without oxygen = ANAEROBIC

8 Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration = chemical process that happens in cells In prokaryotes, it happens in the cell membranes In eukaryotes, it happens mostly in the mitochondria

9 Cellular Respiration has 3 Main 1. GLYCOLYSIS Stages 2. CITRIC ACID CYCLE (KREB S CYCLE) 3. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

10 STAGE 1 - GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis = Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm of the cell. ATP is made. Glycolysis uses two ATP molecules but it produces four ATP molecules = net gain of two ATP molecules.

11 STAGE 1 GLYCOLYSIS Glycolysis can occur WITH or WITHOUT oxygen WITH OXYGEN AEROBIC (Produces more ATP than without) WITHOUT OXYGEN = FERMENTATION ANAEROBIC (Small amounts of ATP produced) So most eukaryotes (ex: plants & animals) get their energy through cellular respiration

12 In Stage 2, More ATP is Made by Aerobic Respiration Krebs Cycle = A series of reactions that produce ATP Aerobic = Oxygen AKA = Citric Acid Cycle

13 Stage 3: Electron Transport Chain Makes ATP Occurs in the membranes of mitochondria Aerobic Respiration

14 No oxygen? Then Fermentation follows Glycolysis Two kinds of fermentation 1. Lactic Acid Fermentation 2. Alcoholic Fermentaion

15 Fermentation Happens when cells cannot get the oxygen they need for cellular respiration Fermentation is a way to get energy when oxygen isn t available Ex: In short, fast races you might get a burning feeling in you leg muscles because of a build up of lactic acid (made during fermentation)

16 Lactic Acid Fermentation Vigorous exercise produces a build up of pyruvate in muscles Pyruvate converts to lactate in the absence of oxygen ATP is still produced in glycolysis BUT you will likely be sore due to a build up of lactate. mmer2002/alchferm.gif

17 Alcoholic Fermentation In other organisms, pyruvate is broken down into alcohol. Can be done by yeast Two step process: 1. Pyruvate is broken down which releases CO Electrons are transferred and ethanol is produced. mmer2002/alchferm.gif

18 Summary

19 Photosynthesis vs Respiration

20 Facts Human body uses 1 million molecules of ATP per cell per second. Much of the body s energy is released as heat. Skunk cabbage generates heat when it flowers in Feb/Mar. How is this helpful?

21

22 Review of Cellular Respiration Food (glucose) is broken down into CO 2 and H 2 O and energy is released C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O + energy (ATP) This energy can be used for: Keeping a constant body temperature Storage (ATP) - to be used later for things like growth

23 What Do You Notice?

24 Did you notice that cellular respiration is just the opposite of photosynthesis? Check It Out!

25 Pop Quiz 1) Plants use carbon dioxide ( ), water ( ), and the sun s energy to make food. CO 2 and H 2 O 2) What type of cell has chloroplasts? PLANT CELL 3) BOTH plants and animals must break down food in order to get from it. ENERGY 4) How are respiration and photosynthesis related? THEY ARE THE REVERSE (OPPOSITE) OF EACH OTHER. 5) Fermentation is a way to get energy when isn t available. OXYGEN

26 Gotta Get that ATP Hvk

27 Gotta Get that ATP Answers 1. ATP 2. Energy 3. Glycolysis 4. Mitochondria 5. Electron Transport Chain

28 Today s Learning Goals In plants, chloroplasts capture energy from the sun in order to make food during photosynthesis Cells release energy from food through either cellular respiration of fermentation Why it matters: Understanding how plants & animals get energy to grow & develop is an important part of biology.

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