ENERGY = ATP ATP. B. How is Energy stored in our cells? 1. In the chemical bonds between the phosphates

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1 I. What is energy in biology? ENERGY = Adenosine TriPhosphate Whoa! HOT stuff! A. What is? Adenosine Triphosphate is similar to a nucleotide but has three phosphates instead of one B. How is Energy stored in our cells? 1. In the chemical bonds between the phosphates 2. Opposites attract and like charges repel The phosphate groups are negatively charged and require LOTS of energy to be held together. How do cells get the stored energy in for use? 3. When chemical bonds between phosphate groups in are broken, Energy is released 4. becomes: ADP (adenosine diphosphate) 1

2 C. Animals are energy consumers u 1. What do we need energy for? To build more organelles, and large molecules Cell reproduction To transport things in and out of the cell by active transport & bulk movement. Movement of muscles, cilia, or flagella temperature control (making heat) 2. Where do we get energy? Energy is stored in organic molecules food u digest food to get fuels for energy () raw materials for building the four biomolecules w carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids D. Plants are energy producers Like animals, plants need energy to live u unlike animals, plants don t need to eat food to make that energy Plants make both FOOD & ENERGY Summary How is s energy released and where do animals get? 2

3 II. Energy in Plants A. Who uses photosynthesis? AUTOTROPHS Like Plants Photosynthesis: Life from Light and Air ROOT CELLS DO NOT HAVE CHLOROPLASTS!! THEY DO NOT GO THROUGH PHOTOSYNTHESIS B. Where does photosynthesis occur? Chloroplasts are only in plants animal cells plant cells CHLOROPLASTS 3

4 1. Why Are They Green? Chlorophyll u Pigment that absorbs all wavelengths of white light except for green. Green is reflected. u In the fall plants absorb all of this pigment to conserve energy. Other pigments contained within the leaves are observed. C. What do plants need for photosynthesis? The factory for making energy & sugars u chloroplast Fuels CO u light 2 u carbon dioxide u water The Helpers u enzymes H 2 O enzymes Make! Make sugar! I can do it all And no one even notices! sugars D. The EQUATION.. Reactants Products carbon + water + glucose + oxygen dioxide energy 6C + 6H 2 O + C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O energy 2 E. How does photosynthesis occur? 2 steps 1. Light dependent reactions 2. Calvin Cycle 1. Light Dependent Reactions a. occurs in: the chloroplast Photon b. Needs: Water and s Light H 2 O & NADPH From water Photolysis- Photo = light Lys = destruction water molecules are split using light energy c. Gives off: 4

5 2. Calvin Cycle: (aka Dark Reactions) SUNLIGHT WATER CARBON DIOXIDE a. Occurs in: the chloroplast & NADPH C b. C, is needed LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTIONS NADPH CALVIN CYCLE C 6 H 12 O 6 c. Glucose is produced. OXYGEN GLUCOSE F. Factors affecting photosynthesis 1. Temperature Growth Rate Temperature VI. Factors affecting photosynthesis 2. Amount of Oxygen Growth Rate Amount of Oxygen VI. Factors affecting photosynthesis 3. Amount of Carbon dioxide VI. Factors affecting photosynthesis 4. Light Intensity Growth Rate Growth Rate Amount of Carbon Dioxide Light Intensity 5

6 Summary Explain the 2 steps of photosynthesis in your own words III. ENERGY IN ANIMALS Cellular Respiration: Harvesting energy stored in food A. Who uses Cellular Respiration? Heterotrophs Like Animals Plant ROOT cells B. What is Cellular respiration? u breaking down food to produce in mitochondria using oxygen w aerobic respiration u usually digesting glucose but could be other sugars, fats, or proteins 1. The EQUATION food glucose + oxygen energy + carbon + water dioxide C 6 H 12 O C + 6H 2 O C. How does Cellular Respiration Occur? 3 Steps 1.Glycolysis 2.Kreb s Cycle 3. Electron Transport Chain 1. Glycolysis a.occurs in the CYTOPLASM NEEDS Glucose GIVES OFF Pyruvate 2 6

7 2. Krebs Cycle a. Occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA 3. Electron Transport Chain a. Occurs in the MITOCHONDRIA NEEDS Pyruvate GIVES OFF Carbon Dioxide 2 NEEDS Oxygen GIVES OFF Water 32 GLYCOLSYSIS Glucose pyruvate KREBS CYCLE Carbon Dioxide 2 2 Oxygen ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Water 32 What do we need to make energy? The Furnace for making energy u mitochondria Fuel u food: carbohydrates, fats, proteins Helpers u oxygen food u enzymes Product u Waste products u carbon dioxide then used by plants u water enzymes Make! Make! All I do all day And no one even notices! C H2 O Mitochondria are everywhere!! animal cells plant cells E. Why do we breathe??? Oxygen is needed in the last step of cellular respiration to create the greatest amount of Adenosine TriPhosphate Adenosine DiPhosphate ADP work A working muscle recycles over 10 million s per second Whoa! Pass me the glucose & oxygen! 7

8 1. What if oxygen is missing? No oxygen available = can t complete aerobic respiration Anaerobic respiration a. also known as fermentation b. no oxygen or no mitochondria (bacteria) c. can only make very little d. large animals cannot survive yeast 2. Types of Anaerobic Respiration a. alcohol fermentation yeast w glucose 2 + C + alcohol w make beer, wine, bread b. lactic acid fermentation bacteria, animals w glucose 2 + lactic acid w bacteria make yogurt w animals feel muscle fatigue bacteria Tastes good but not enough energy for me! Got the energy Ask Questions!! IV. How are they connected? Respiration glucose + oxygen carbon + water + energy dioxide C 6 H 12 O C + 6H 2 O Photosynthesis carbon + water + dioxide energy 6CO + 2 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 6O energy + 2 glucose + oxygen Energy cycle Another view capture light energy Photosynthesis plants Photosynthesis producers, autotrophs synthesis C H 2 O animals, plants Cellular Respiration glucose sugars C waste H 2 O waste consumers, heterotrophs Cellular Respiration organic molecules food waste digestion The Great Circle of Life! Mufasa? release chemical energy 8

9 The poetic perspective All of the solid material of every plant was built out of thin air All of the solid material of every animal was built from plant material air Then all the cats, dogs, mice, people & elephants are really strands of air woven together by light! 9

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