UNIT 5. ECOSYSTEMS. Biocenosis Biotope Biotic factors Abiotic factors

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1 UNIT 5. ECOSYSTEMS 1. Define: ecosystem, biocenosis, biotope, abiotic factor, biotic factor 2. Complete using this word: ecosphere, biosphere, ecology, ecosystem a) The is all of the living thing on Earth. This is the living part of the ecosphere b) The is a community together with its nonliving surroundings. c) The is the part of biology that studies ecosystems. d) The is the part of the Earth that can support life. This includes the entire ecosystem on the Earth. 3. What is the name for a biotope together with the community that lives in it? 4. Is a zoo an ecosystem? 5. Draw an ecosystem 6. Complete the chart using the characteristic that there are in the ecosystem that you have drawn. Biocenosis Biotope Biotic factors Abiotic factors 7. Identify the words in the list which relate to ecosystems. Then decide if they are part of the biocenosis or the biotope: soil, machinery, wind, building, animals, energy, microorganisms, plants, temperature, humidity, pollution, nutrients, atmospheric pressure, light, oxygen, water currents, and fungi. 8. What is habitat? What is ecological niche? 9. Can two species share habitat? Can two species share ecological niche? 10. Describe the differences between a habitat and an ecological niche. Why don t two species usually share the same ecological niche? 11. What is adaptation? 12. Explain four examples of adaptation in plants and animals. 13. Read and answer the question: Is the red or grey squirrel better adapted to the habitat in the UK? 14. Seals have thick, waterproof fur and a thick layer of fat? Why do you think this is? 15. For: polar bear, cactus and bat. Explain: a) What type of habitat does it live in? b) How is it adapted to its habitat? 1

2 16. Define: producers, consumers, decomposers, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, top carnivore. 17. Complete: Organisms Producer Consumer Decomposer 18. Primary consumers feed on all types of plants. Where can you find most primary consumers: in high mountains or in woods? 19. What is the difference between food chain and food web? 20. Which graphic representation gives more information about an ecosystem: a food chain or a food web? Why do you think this is? 21. Put the following living beings in order to represent the food chain. 22. Look at the picture and write five different food chains with these living beings Draw a food chain with the following organisms: killer whale, sardine, plankton, tuna a) Label the producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer and tertiary consumer b) Which organisms in the food chain are carnivores? c) What is the top carnivore in this food chain? 24. What do you think there are more of: producers or tertiary consumers? 25. What do decomposers eat: producers or consumers or both? 2

3 26. Look at the food web. a) What do rabbits eat? b) What animals eat rabbits? c) What is eaten by blackbirds? d) Write down three producers e) Write down three consumers f) Which animals are herbivores? g) Which animals are carnivores? h) Which animal is an omnivore? i) Which animals are top carnivores? 27. Describe these two processes: the flow of energy in an ecosystem and the cycle of matter in an ecosystem 28. What happens to the material that isn t passed up the food chain? 29. What happens to the energy that isn t passed up the food chain? 30. Why do you think that food chains only ever have four or five levels? 31. In the following food chain, who receives more energy, the mountain lion or the owl? Explain your answer. a) grass rabbit mountain lion b) tree butterflytoad snake owl 32. Complete: 33. What type of pyramid shows in an ecosystem? a) the amount of organic matter b) the amount of energy at a trophic level c) the number of primary consumers 34. Draw a trophic pyramid for each of the two ecosystems. What type of pyramids are they? a) On a prairie, there are plants, herbivores, carnivores and one super carnivore b) In a temperate wood, there are 250 plants, herbivores, carnivores and two super carnivores. 3

4 35. Draw a pyramid of numbers for the following food chain: 1 pine tree 500 beetles10 blackbirds Would the pyramid of biomass be the same shape? Explain your answer. 36. What are the differences between interspecific and intraspecific relations? 37. What are gregarious animals? 38. What are colonial animals? 39. What are social animals? 40. What are familiar animals? 41. What are the differences between: a) Mutualism and commensalism b) Commensalism and Inquilinism c) Parasitism and Depredation 42. Write an example of: a) Mutualism b) Commensalism c) Inquilinism d) Parasitism e) Depredation 43. Competition is a relationship in which organisms compete for the same resource. Which would be more intense, intraspecific or interspecific competition? Why? 44. Look at the photos. What biotic relations are represented in each one? Are intraspecific or interspecific? 45. Look at the food web on exercise 26. If all of the rabbits died: a) What would happen to the foxes? b) What would happen to the hawks? c) What would happen to the cabbages? d) Do you think the population of any of the animals would increase? Why? 46. Think of an example of a predator-prey relationship for animals that are typical of the area where you live. Draw a graph to explain how the populations of the two animals change. 47. Think about your country: a) Which climatic zone is it in? b) Is there different ecosystem in different part of the country? 48. Describe one ecosystem of the frigid zone, one of the temperate zone and other of the torrid zone 49. Answer these questions: a) What is the main difference between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems? b) What factors do the distribution of organisms in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem depend on? c) Which of the abiotic factors for aquatic ecosystem are also factor in terrestrial ecosystems? 50. What are the differences between marine and freshwater ecosystems? 4

5 51. Look at the diagram of a lake: a) Where do you expect find more organisms, area 2 or area 3? Why? b) Which areas (1,2 or 3) do you think plants and phytoplankton can grow in? Does the depth of the lake affect your answer? 52. Do you think there are herbivores in the aphotic zone of the ocean? Why/Why not? 53. Which ecosystem do you think has more biodiversity: a) an olive plantation or a Mediterranean forest? Why? b) a puddle or a lake? Why? c) the bottom of a deep ocean, or the top layer of the ocean, nearest the surface? Why? 54. Think of two more examples of things that humans do that could have a negative impact on an ecosystem. 55. Look at the food chain of the foxes: a) What would happen to the rabbit if all the foxes were hunted? b) What do you think would happen to the plants that the rabbits eat? Do this affect to the rabbits? 5