1 An ecosystem is a community of organisms and their interaction with their environment. (abiotic, biotic, niche, habitat, population, community)- 1. Which effect does a decrease in sunlight have on a pond ecosystem? A. an increase in oxygen levels B. a decrease in the nitrogen levels C. an increase in the algae population D. a decrease in the algae population 2. Why can frogs and snakes live in the same garden? 3. Define a community: 4. Define a population: 5. Write each of the vocabulary words on the line below from smallest to largest: niche, community, habitat, population, ecosystem. Food chains show one feeding relationship. Food webs show many feeding relationships. 1. What is the source of energy for the algae? a. waves b. sunlight c. bacteria d. rotifers, water fleas and tadpoles 2. What could the water fleas be called? a. primary consumers b. secondary consumers c. decomposers 3. Which diagram shows how energy d. producers flows through a food chain? A. Producers -> Carnivores -> Herbivores B. Sun -> Producers -> Herbivores -> Carnivores C. Sun -> Carnivores -> Producers -> Consumers D. Herbivores -> Carnivores -> Producers 4. Describe what would happen to other organisms in the food web if the population of small fish decreased. 5. Make your own food web below using the following organisms: grass, fox, vole, grasshopper. Remember, the arrows point in the direction the energy is moving.
2 A grassland is an ecosystem that has mostly grasses and small shrubs. A desert is an ecosystem that is mostly composed of sand and rocks. 1. Which of the following is a behavioral modification for the desert? A. Being active only at night. B. Growing roots into the ground. C. Swallowing their prey whole. D. Hunting during the day. 2. What type of plants and animals live in a grassland? Give at least three of each. Plants Animals A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem with a humid climate and abundant rainfall. A deciduous forest is an ecosystem that has trees that shed their leaves annually. 1. What is a defining characteristic of the deciduous forest? A. It has many pine trees. B. It has many mammals. C. It has many cacti that store water. D. It has many broad-leafed trees. 2. In a forest, how do decomposers help other organisms survive? A. They release oxygen into the air that animals breathe. B. They put nutrients into the soil that plants use to grow. C. They provide shelter in forests where animals can hide. D. They use sunlight to make food for plants and animals. 3. Explain why the tropical rainforest has nutrient-poor soil. 3. Describe the characteristics of a desert. " 4. Describe how a snake is adapted for a rainforest?
3 A taiga is an ecosystem that has many coniferous trees. A tundra is an ecosystem that has permafrost year round. 1. Why do large trees have a difficult time living in a tundra? A. A tundra is too hot for trees to grow large. B. Animals that live in a tundra destroy most vegetation. C. Flooding occurs too often in a tundra for large trees to grow. D. The soil in a tundra is too poor for large trees to grow. 2. To the left is a picture of a coniferous tree. In what ecosystem is it typically found? 3. What is the difference between a tundra and a taiga? An ecosystem requires a balance between producers, consumers and decomposers. 1. Which animal is classified as an herbivore? A. frog B. fox C. snail D. cat 3. Which organisms are producers? A. oak tree B. frogs C. insects D. snakes 2. A group of students is building a model of an ecosystem. Which of the following organisms should the students select to act as a decomposer? A. Snail B. Deer C. Worm D. Bird 4. List all of the producers, consumers, and decomposers of a deciduous forest that you can below. Producers Decomposers Consumers
4 Humans affect ecosystems by clearing land. Humans affect ecosystems by polluting and fertilizing. Humans recycle to protect the environment. 1. Which of the following gases do plants use to do photosynthesis? A. hydrogen B. nitrogen C. carbon dioxide D. carbon monoxide 2. A strip of land is cleared of trees and bushes to make space for a power line. What impact might this have on birds living in the area? A. The natural enemies of birds will be eliminated. B. Weather conditions may change. C. The rate of erosion will decrease. D. There will be less food and shelter. 3. According to the Nitrogen Cycle, how does nitrogen from the atmosphere become used by plants? _ 4. What is a likely consequence of cutting down rain forests? A. a reduction in the amount of air pollution on Earth B. an increase in the number of plants living on Earth C. a reduction in the variety of organisms living on Earth D. an increase in the number of arctic ecosystems on Earth Mutualism, commensalism and parasitism are different types of symbiosis. 1. Which is the best example of two organisms having a mutualistic relationship? A. A tick and a dog B. A sea anemone and a clown fish C. A tapeworm and a human D. None of the above 2. Different types of birds within an environment may feed on different types of organisms. What is a benefit of this type of interaction? A. It allows different birds to build better nests. B. It reduces competition between different birds. C. It causes different birds to reproduce more often. D. It allows different birds to escape from predators. 3. A small fish, called a cleaner fish, picks bits of food from a shark s teeth. Does this help or hurt the shark and why? 4. What is the relationship between these two organisms?
5 Organisms depend on their interactions within their environment to survive. 1. A student wants to put some plants in a window-box planter. The window selected for the plants is always shaded by a large tree outside the window. Which characteristic of the plants would most likely affect the plants growth in this location? A. leaf shape B. light C. plant price D. flower color 2. Oak trees produce seeds that are contained in acorns. Blue jays eat the seeds in acorns. Blue jays also collect acorns and hide them in the ground, often far away from the parent oak tree. Blue jays do not eat the seed of every acorn they hide. How do oak trees benefit from blue jays collecting and hiding acorns? A. The oak trees are pollinated by the blue jays. B. The oak trees are protected from other herbivores. C. The seeds of oak trees are protected from the sun. D. The seeds of oak trees are planted in new environments. 3.Describe how these organisms interact in their environment. Organisms depend on their interactions within their environment to survive. 1. Which location on Earth receives the most direct sunlight? A. North Carolina B. The South Pole C. The Equator D. The Western Hemisphere 2. A species of giant pandas lives only in central China. Bamboo, a tall, green tropical plant, is the main food source for these animals. Large areas of bamboo are being cut down in central China to make room for growing other crops. What will most likely happen to these giant pandas? A. They will become endangered or extinct. B. They will migrate to colder areas of China. C. They will become carnivores. 3. The owl butterfly has patterns on its wings that look like large eyes. How does this help the butterfly survive?