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1 ECOLOGY PACKET Name: Period: Teacher:

2 ECOLOGY UNIT Page 1

3 Across 3. an organism that makes its own food 6. organisms that break down dead or decaying organisms 7. a community of organisms and its abiotic environment 12. all of the physical (nonliving) things that affect organisms in an area 14. a combination of food chains that integrate to form a network 16. the natural progression of ecosystems that begin with a layer of soil present 17. the place where an animal lives 19. the final stage of succession with the greatest biodiversity 20. an organism that eats another organism 22. a series of organisms that feed on one another 24. the natural progression of ecosystems beginning from bare rock 25. the position or function of an organism in a community of plants and animals 26. all of the populations of different species that live and interact in an area 28. a group of individuals of the same species that live together in the same area at the same time 32. a natural product of Earth that is vital for life Down 1. a graphical representation of the number of organisms, energy relationships or biomass of an ecosystem 2. something that tends to control the size of a population 4. the first organisms to inhabit an area 5. the struggle among organisms, both of the same and of different species, for food, space, and other vital requirements. 8. any class of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain, as primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. 9. all the living organisms and the organic matter they produce 10. a complex biotic community characterized by distinctive plant, animal species and climate 11. an organism that hunts another organism for food. 13. the introduction of harmful substances or products into the environment 15. the whole area of Earth where life exists 18. a class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities 21. branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms. 23. the amount of living matter in a given habitat 24. an organism eaten by a predator 26. the maximum number of organisms an ecosystem can sustain 27. the natural progression of ecosystems to a climax community 29. an individual form of life 30. an organism that can make its own food through photosynthesis 31. an organism that cannot make its own food and relies on other organisms for food Word Bank abiotic autotroph biomass biome biosphere biotic carrying capacity climax community community competition consumer decomposer ecological pyramid ecological succession ecology ecosystem food chain food web habitat heterotroph limiting factor niche organism pioneer species pollution population predator prey primary succession producer resources secondary succession species trophic levels Page 2

4 Ecology is. The levels of organization is as follows:. Ecology contain both and factors. Examples of biotic factors are and abiotic factors are. Biomes are communities characterized by a certain type of and. TUNDRA: Plant Life: Animal Life: Climate: TROPICAL RAIN FOREST: Plant Life: Animal Life: Climate: DESERT: Plant Life: Animal Life: Climate: TEMPERATE DECIDUOUS FOREST: Plant Life: Animal Life: Climate: Location: Location: Location: Location: TAIGA (BOREAL) FOREST: GRASSLANDS: CONIFEROUS FOREST: BIOSPHERE: Plant Life: Plant Life: Plant Life: Animal Life: Animal Life: Animal Life: _ Climate: Climate: Climate: Location: Location: Location: Page 3

5 Within each biome there are intricate patterns of how the flow of matter (energy) takes place. There are food chains, food webs and various types of ecological pyramids used to demonstrate this process. First let s look at the various ways that organisms obtain nutrition. The main source of energy for all life is the. The sun is used to carry out the process of by plants known as or producers. Autotrophs. Autotrophs are then consumed by the or consumer. There are various types of consumers or heterotrophs. They are as follows: Herbivore Carnivore Omnivore Decomposer All of these organisms are involved in some sort of food chain or food web. What is a food chain? Choose one food chain from the food web below and illustrate it below: What is a food web? Only % of the energy stored in a trophic level is passed on to the next level because the majority of the energy is used by the organism to carry out life processes such as, and. Some of the remaining energy is released into the environment as. Page 4

6 Biomes Concept Map: Use your notes in your journal on Biomes. Deciduous Forest WORD BANK: North Africa Elephant Reptiles Cactus Eastern USA Giraffe Monkeys Equator Central USA Prairie Dogs Pine Trees Maple Trees Canada Lion Dry Climate Seasons Central Africa Moose Canopy Farmland Squirrels Rainfall Page 5

7 ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the amount of that is contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. There are several types of Ecological Pyramids. The first type is a Pyramid of Energy which. Label the Energy Pyramid using the following terms: producers, herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, autotroph, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers. Label the amount of energy available in each level. Label the arrow with the following terms: high energy, low energy Define biomass: Another type of pyramid is the Pyramid of Biomass which represents Note that biomass is typically expressed using grams or kilograms. Which organism would have the smallest amount of biomass? Which organism would have the largest amount of biomass? Which level would have the greatest amount of available energy? Pyramid of Biomass Which level would have the least amount of available energy? Page 6

8 SYMBIOSIS describes a long-term between two in which at least one of the organisms involved benefits. List the 3 types of symbiosis:, and. Look at pages in the blue book to answer the questions below. MUTUALISM PARASITISM COMMENSALISM Example Example Definition Other types of relationships within an ecosystem are: _ and. Predation: _ Give your own example of Predation: Competition: Give your own example of Competition: Draw a picture that represents mutualism and parasitism between organisms below. Page 7

9 PREDATION OR STARVATION: Page 8

10 ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION: Look at pages in the red book. Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances. As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die off and new organisms move in causing further changes within the communities. This series of changes is called. There are different types of ecological succession. The first type is called succession. How does this type of succession occur? Within this environment, there are simple, primitive plants that first emerge that live on the in the environment. They are vital because they break down through the process of. What are the pioneer organisms in this picture? The final stage of this ecosystem is the community. What organisms make up this community? Which stage in the picture has the most biodiversity? What part of the picture is composed of only abiotic parts? _ A second type of changing ecosystem is succession. How does this type of succession occur in the picture below? Describe the changes that place over time beneath the diagram. Page 9

11 Ecological Succession Worksheet Succession, a series of environmental changes, occurs in all ecosystems. The stages that any ecosystem passes through are predictable. In this activity, you will place the stages of succession of two ecosystems into sequence. You will also describe changes in an ecosystem and make predictions about changes that will take place from one stage of succession to another. The evolution of a body of water from a lake to a marsh can last for thousands of years. The process cannot be observed directly. Instead, a method can be used to find the links of stages and then to put them together to develop a complete story. The water level of Lake Michigan was once 18 meters higher than it is today. As the water level fell, land was exposed. Many small lakes or ponds were left behind where there were depressions in the land. Below are illustrations and descriptions of four ponds as they exist today. Use the illustrations and descriptions to answer the questions about the ponds. Pond A: Cattails, bulrushes, and water lilies grow in the pond. These plants have their roots in the bottom of the pond, but they can reach above the surface of the water. This pond is an ideal habitat for the animals that must climb to the surface for oxygen. Aquatic insect larvae are abundant. They serve as food for larger insects, which in turn are food for crayfish, frogs, salamanders, and turtles. Pond B: Plankton growth is rich enough to support animals that entered when the pond was connected to the lake. Fish make nests on the sandy bottom. Mussels crawl over the bottom. Pond C: Decayed bodies of plants and animals form a layer of humus over the bottom of the pond. Chara, branching green algae, covers the humus. Fish that build nests on the bare bottom have been replaced by those that lay their eggs on the Chara. Pond D: The pond is so filled with vegetation that there are no longer any large areas of open water. Instead, the pond is filled with grasses. The water dries up during the summer months. Page 10

12 Using the information from the Ecological Successions Worksheet, answer the following questions. 1. Write the letters of the ponds in order from the youngest, to the oldest. 2. Black bass and bluegill make their nests on sandy bottoms. In which pond would you find them? 3. What will happen to the black bass and blue gill as the floor of the ponds fills with organic debris? 4. Golden shiner and mud minnows lay their eggs on Chara (green algae). In which pond would you find them? 5. Some amphibians and crayfish can withstand periods of dryness by burying themselves in mud. In which pond(s) would they survive? 6. Dragonfly nymphs spend their early stages clinging to submerged plants. Then, they climb to the surface, shed their skins, and fly away as dragonflies. Which pond is best suited for dragonflies? 7. In which pond will gill breathing snails be replaced by lung breathing snails that climb to the surface to breathe? 8. Some mussels require a sandy bottom in order to maintain an upright position. In which pond will they die out? Page 11

13 CYCLES OF MATTER: In ecosystems matter is constantly being recycled. Elements, chemical compounds and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another through biogeochemical cycles. There are several ways this happens. WATER CYCLE Diagram Steps of the Process Definition Page 12

14 SELF-QUIZ: 1. On the leaves of many plants, pores open during the night and close during the day. This response allows the plant to. A. use its roots to eliminate waste B. wilt at night from colder temperatures C. produce more flowers for reproduction D. reduce water lost by transpiration 2. An eagle and a grizzly bear both feed on the same species of salmon in the same location. Which type of symbiotic relationship is displayed by the eagle and the bear? A Competition B Commensalism C Predation D Parasitism 3. After a volcanic eruption, lava covers the land. What is the order that plants grow to repopulate the area? A Lichens Shrubs Grasses Trees B Shrubs Trees Grasses Lichens C Grasses Lichens Shrubs Trees D Lichens Grasses Shrubs Trees 4. In a food pyramid, the amount of energy decreases A if there are more predators. B as it transfers up trophic levels. C when decomposers dominate. D when there are more producers. 5. A limiting factor could be A food B water C shelter D all of the above Page 13

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