Ecology. Ecology terminology Biomes Succession Energy flow in ecosystems Loss of energy in a food chain

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1 Ecology Ecology terminology Biomes Succession Energy flow in ecosystems Loss of energy in a food chain

2 Terminology Ecology- the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with their physical environment Habitat- place where a particular population of species lives Community- is when many different species live together in a habitat Ecosystem- a community including the physical aspects of its habitat (soil, water, weather)

3 Habitat Example- The habitat for a black bat is a cave

4 Community Example- A black bat, brown bat, worms and moss are apart of a community

5 Ecosystem Example- Loose soil, moderate climate and a pond nearby in addition to the cave community would be considered an ecosystem

6 Terminology con t Biotic factors- are organisms in a habitat Ex. Animals, bugs, plants, flowers, etc Abiotic factors- are the physical aspects of a habitat Ex. Wind, water, rocks, sunlight, shade, etc.

7 What is a Biome? A biome is a large geographical area of distinctive plant and animal groups, which are adapted to that particular environment

8 Terrestrial biomes are defined by temperature & moisture; characterized by the organisms that live there, particularly the plants!

9 Terrestrial Biomes Desert cacti and succulants Chaparral shrubs, some grasses, few small trees; drought and fire resistant Grasslands tall grasses, few if any trees, wildflowers Temperate deciduous forest deciduous trees & other plant species Tropical rainforest many trees and a huge variety of other plant species Taiga conifers & other plant species, including mosses, shrubs & vines Tundra cold and relatively dry; very few small plant species

10 Terrestrial Biomes Desert Chaparral Grassland Deciduous forest Rainforest Taiga Tundra What biome do we live in?

11 Biomes Aquatic biomes are defined by light and depth Freshwater biomes: Lakes and ponds Streams and rivers Wetlands- swamps, bogs, flood plains Marine and saltwater: Oceans Coral Reefs Estuary- place where freshwater runs into salt water

12 Lakes and Ponds Rivers and Streams Wetlands

13 Oceans Coral Reef Estuary

14 What is succession? Succession- the somewhat regular progression of species replacement Primary succession- when species begin to inhabit a place where life has not existed before Secondary succession- when species take over areas that have had previous growth

15 Primary succession- when species begin to inhabit a place where life has not existed before Examples: The edge of an iceberg melts exposing uninhabited soil and plants begin to sprout A volcano erupts leaving behind ash and lava rock

16 Secondary succession- when species take over areas that have had previous growth Examples: A forest has been burned and new growth sprouts A crop field is abandoned and wild species begin to repopoulate

17 Pioneer species: Succession Small, fast growing plants are the first organisms to live in a new habitat where soil is present Build up soil for successive species

18 Energy Flow in Ecosystems The flow of energy is the most important factor that controls what kinds of organisms live in an ecosystem and how many organisms can be supported

19 Energy FLOWS Nutrients CYCLE solar chemical heat (glucose) photosynthesis food chain heat energy is not converted back into solar energy

20 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Producersorganisms that first capture energy from the sun through photosynthesis (autotrophs) Plants, algae and some bacteria Consumers- all other organisms that consume other organisms to obtain energy (heterotrophs) Herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, and detritivores

21 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Trophic levels In an ecosystem, organisms are assigned to specific levels based on their source of energy

22 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Food chain- is the path of energy that travels through the trophic levels of an ecosystem Sun Producer Consumer Consumer

23 Energy Flow in Ecosystems First level => Producers Second level => Herbivores (animals that eat plants/primary consumers) also called primary consumers Third level => carnivores (animals that eat other animals) and omnivores (animals that eat both plants and animals) also called secondary consumers Fourth level =>carnivores that eat other carnivores also called tertiary consumers

24 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Fourth level Third level Second level First level Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers Producers

25 Energy Flow in Ecosystems Special consumers called detritivores are organisms that obtain their energy from the organic wastes of dead bodies at all trophic levels Ex. Worms, fungi and bacteria *Bacteria and fungi are known as decomposers because they cause decay

26

27 Energy Flow in Ecosystem Food web- is an interconnected group of food chains *Note direction of the arrows.

28

29 Loss of Energy in a Food Chain Energy pyramid The ultimate source of all energy is the sun Top carnivore Carnivores and omnivores Herbivores Contains the greatest amount of energy Producers

30 Loss of Energy in a Food Chain The loss of energy limits the number of trophic levels an ecosystem can support At each trophic level, the energy stores is about 1/10 of that stored by the organism below.1% 1% 10% energy stored 100% energy stored from the sun

31 Stop and think Where does all energy come from? Why does an energy pyramid usually have no more than 4 levels? In a food chain which direction does the arrow point? Why? (Hint: think about energy transfer)

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