1 Study Guide: Unit A Interactions & Ecosystems Name: Pattern: Vocabulary: Section 1 Section 2 Ecosystem Consumer Biotic Producer Abiotic Carnivore Organism Herbivore Species Omnivore Population Decomposer Community Scavenger Basic Needs Photosynthesis Nutrients Cellular respiration Symbiosis Food chain Commensalism Food web Mutualism Water cycle Parasitism Carbon cycle Adaptation Section 3 Bioinvasion Competition Predation Pioneer species Primary succession Secondary succession Climax community Section 4 Extinct Endangered Threatened Ecological Footprint You should be able to 1. Classify things as biotic or abiotic 2. Describe the relationship between species, population, or community. 3. Classify organisms as a species, population, or community. 4. List the five things all living things need in order to survive.
2 5. Classify relationships between organisms as mutualism, commensalism, or parasitism. 6. Describe an example of an adaptation and how species come to develop an adaptation. 7. Write a word equation for photosynthesis and for cellular respiration. 8. Identify examples of herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, decomposers, and scavengers. 9. Draw, label and read a food chain and a food web. 10. Explain the five different processes in the water cycle. 11. Explain how carbon is cycled in an environment. 12. Explain how bio-invasion affects an ecosystem. 13. Explain succession and understand the difference between primary succession and secondary succession. 14. List resources that species typically compete for, and explain the effects competition has on an ecosystem. 15. Explain how the population of a prey species will affect the population of a predator species. 16. Explain how human actions can have unintended consequences on an ecosystem. 17. Explain ways you can work to reduce your ecological footprint. Practice Questions: 1. What is the difference between abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem? Give an example of each. 2. Is a banana tree an example of a species, population, or community? Explain your answer. 3. Is the beach an example of a species, population, or community? Explain your answer.
3 4. Is a herd of deer an example of a species, population or community? Explain your answer. 5. What are the five basic needs of all living things? 6. What are nutrients? 7. What are the three types of symbiotic relationships? Give the definition and an example of each. 8. Give an example of an adaptation and explain how it benefits that species. 9. Explain the ways in which humans have improved their methods of garbage disposal.
4 10. Explain the difference between producers, consumers, decomposers and scavengers. 11. What type of consumer eats only plants and plant-like organisms? 12. What type of consumer only eats other animals? 13. What type of consumer eats both plants and other animals? 14. Write the word equation for photosynthesis. 15. Write the word equation for cellular respiration. 16. Why are decomposers so important in an ecosystem?
5 17. What is the difference between a food chain and a food web? 18. What do food chains and food webs show the flow of? 19. Ultimately, what is at the start of a food chain? 20. What percentage of energy is passed between organisms in a food chain? Why is it less than 100%? 21. Using the food web below, explain what would happen if a virus killed off the mouse population.
6 22. Explain the five processes in the water cycle. 23. In what ways is carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere? 24. How is carbon added to the soil? 25. What is bioinvasion? Provide an example. How does bioinvasion affect an ecosystem?
7 26. Explain how competition affects an ecosystem. What resources do species usually compete for? 27. Explain how the populations of both predator and prey species change over time. 28. How can weather change an ecosystem over time? 29. What are pioneer species? 30. Define succession. What is the difference between primary succession and secondary succession? 31. What is a climax community? Will an ecosystem stay as its climax community forever? Why or why not?
8 32. Give an example of how humans have impacted an ecosystem without meaning to. 33. Explain the difference between a species that is threatened, a species that is endangered, and a species that is extinct. 34. What is your ecological footprint? 35. What are some ways that you can work to reduce your ecological footprint? Extra Practice Section 1: Check and Reflect questions pgs. 15, 19, & 24; Section Review questions pg. 25 Section 2: Check and Reflect questions pgs. 33, 38, 43, & 46; Section Review questions pgs. 48 & 49 Section 3: Check and Reflect questions pgs. 54, 60, & 64; Section Review questions pg. 65 Section 4: Check and Reflect questions pgs. 71, 75, 77, & 82; Section Review questions pg. 83 Unit Summary: page 85 Unit Review Questions: pages 89-91