Ecology Test Biology Honors

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1 Do Not Write On Test Ecology Test Biology Honors Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The study of the interaction of living organisms with each other and with their physical environment is called a. health. c. ecology. b. economy. d. geology. 2. A group of organisms of different species living together in a particular place is called a a. community. c. biome. b. population. d. habitat. 3. An ecosystem consists of a. a community of organisms. b. energy. c. the soil, water, and weather. 4. All organisms in an ecosystem are linked together in a network of interactions. This quality is called a. geochemical processes. c. interdependence. b. isolation. d. communication. 5. The specific physical location in which a given species lives is called its a. habitat. c. community. b. abiotic factor. d. climate. 6. An organism s niche includes a. what it eats. c. when it eats. b. where it eats. 7. Species with narrow niches a. are called specialists. b. use a wide variety of resources. c. can tolerate a range of environmental conditions. 8. The primary producers in a grassland ecosystem would most likely be a. insects. c. grasses. b. bacteria. d. algae. 9. The organic material in an ecosystem is called a. trophic level. c. energy. b. biomass. d. productivity. 1

2 10. Refer to the illustration above. The photosynthetic algae are a. producers. c. parasites. b. consumers. d. decomposers. 11. Refer to the illustration above. The diagram, which shows how energy moves through an ecosystem, is called a a. habitat net. c. trophic level. b. food chain. d. food web. 12. Refer to the illustration above. The leopard seals are a. producers. c. herbivores. b. omnivores. d. carnivores. 13. Refer to the illustration above. Among all of the food chains, the organisms at the highest trophic level are a. the algae. c. the krill. b. the crabeater seals. d. the killer whales. 14. Refer to the illustration above. On the pyramid, animals that feed on plant eaters are no lower than a. level 1. c. level 3. b. level 2. d. level Refer to the illustration above. How much energy is available to the organisms in level 3? a. all of the energy in level 1 plus the energy in level 2 b. all of the energy in level 1 minus the energy in level 2 c. about 10 percent of the energy in level 2 d. about 90 percent of the energy in level 2 2

3 16. Water and minerals needed by all organisms on Earth pass back and forth between the biotic and abiotic portions of the environment in a process called a. a trophic cycle. b. a trophic pathway. c. a biogeochemical cycle. d. a biochemical pathway. 17. Precipitation and evaporation are important components of the a. nitrogen cycle. c. carbon cycle. b. water cycle. 18. Humans affect the carbon cycle by a. burning fossil fuels. b. destroying vegetation that absorbs carbon dioxide. c. clearing forests. 19. A tick feeding on a human is an example of a. parasitism. c. competition. b. mutualism. d. commensalism. 20. Which of the following usually results when members of different species require the same food and space? a. primary succession b. primary competition c. secondary succession d. interspecific competition 21. The relationship between flowering plants and the bees that pollinate them is an example of a. commensalism. c. mutualism. b. competition. d. parasitism. The diagrams below show different kinds of interactions between species. 22. Refer to the illustration above. The relationship shown in diagram 4 is a. commensalism. c. mutualism. b. competition. d. parasitism. 23. Refer to the illustration above. The relationship shown in diagram 2 is a. commensalism. c. mutualism. b. competition. d. parasitism. 3

4 24. Refer to the illustration above. The relationship shown in diagram 1 is a. commensalism. c. mutualism. b. competition. d. parasitism. 25. Refer to the illustration above. An ecosystem located along the equator would probably a. have a shorter growing season than an ecosystem at 30 north or south latitude. b. contain fewer species than an ecosystem at 30 north or south latitude. c. have higher species richness than an ecosystem at 30 north or south latitude. d. have less rainfall than an ecosystem at 30 north or south latitude. 26. Generally, the closer an ecosystem is to the equator, a. the longer its growing season. c. the warmer its temperature. b. the greater its species richness. 27. Refer to the illustration above. The transformation over time shown in the diagram is known as a. stability. c. symbiosis. b. succession. d. species richness. 28. Which of the following types of succession would most likely occur after a forest fire? a. primary succession c. secondary succession b. old field succession d. climax succession 4

5 29. Because individuals in a population usually tend to produce more than one offspring, a. populations tend to increase in size. b. populations remain stable in size. c. individuals tend to die quickly. d. the number of individuals declines rapidly. 30. Demographic studies of populations must take into consideration a. population size. b. population density. c. population dispersion. 31. Trees growing along the banks of a river but not growing in the surrounding area would best be described as a dispersion of the trees. a. clumped b. uniform c. random d. mixture of clumped, uniform, and random 32. Birth and death rates are on an exponential growth curve, whereas they are on a logistic growth curve. a. variable; constant c. steady; changing b. high; low d. unrestricted; restricted 33. As a population reaches its carrying capacity, there may be an increase in competition for a. food. c. mates. b. shelter. 34. The agricultural revolution enabled Earth s human population to increase dramatically because it a. allowed people to live in one place instead of moving from place to place in search of food. b. stabilized and increased available food supplies. c. resulted in people having more free time. d. provided plenty of work for most of Earth s population. 35. Human population growth is currently most rapid in a. European countries. c. developed countries. b. North American countries. d. developing countries. 36. Which of the following processes is not primarily caused by humans? a. air pollution b. the greenhouse effect c. thinning of the ozone layer d. increased carbon dioxide levels 37. The extinction of species a. is a problem limited to the tropics. b. has been accelerated by the activities of people. c. is a problem only where topsoil and groundwater are limited. d. will not be a problem in the coming century. 38. Which of the following is a benefit of biodiversity to humans? a. food c. medicines b. timber 39. The destruction of the ozone layer could cause an increase in a. global warming. c. biological magnification. b. acid precipitation. d. skin cancer. 5

6 40. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in the atmosphere a. cause ozone to be broken down. b. change oxygen into ozone. c. convert sunlight into ozone. d. convert ozone into methane. 41. Ozone in the upper atmosphere a. leads to formation of acid precipitation. b. combines readily with water vapor. c. absorbs harmful radiation from the sun. 42. The heat-trapping effect of some gases in the atmosphere can be compared to a. the way snow melts on a sunny day. b. the way glass traps heat inside a greenhouse. c. the way water condenses on a glass of ice. d. the way a teakettle holds water on a stove. 43. A population of organisms grows a. with no natural restrictions except the availability of food. b. when the birth rate exceeds the death rate. c. only in the absence of predators or natural diseases. 44. When an organism dies, the nitrogen in its body a. can never be reused by other living things. b. is immediately released into the atmosphere. c. is released by the action of decomposers. 45. Ecosystem disruption a. threatens the existence of thousands of species. b. increases biodiversity. c. protects natural habitats. d. has no effect on biodiversity. 46. If a population is composed of equal numbers of people of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive age, what will most likely happen to the size of the population? a. It will grow steadily. b. It will experience no growth for a time and then increase rapidly. c. It will decrease steadily. d. It will experience no growth for a time and then decrease rapidly. 6

7 47. Refer to the illustration above. Which time period shows the highest rate of growth of the population? a. period W X c. period X Y b. period W Y d. period Y Z 48. Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following contributed to the change in world population during the 1900s that is shown in the graph? a. better sanitation b. improved health care c. agricultural improvements 49. Refer to the illustration above. Which point on the graph indicates the approximate world population in the year 1950? a. W c. Y b. X d. Z 50. Refer to the illustration above. During which time period are the birth rate and death rate equal? a. period 1 c. period 3 b. period 2 d. period 4 7

8 51. Refer to the illustration above. The rate of growth of a population is represented by r. During which time period does r = 0? a. period 1 c. period 3 b. period 2 d. period Which population might be least likely to be devastated by a new disease outbreak? a. a small population made up of the offspring of healthy, related parents b. a large, genetically diverse population c. a small, genetically uniform population d. a large, genetically uniform population 53. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a zebra eating grass. 54. Parasites a. coevolve with their hosts. b. are usually smaller than their hosts. c. rarely kill their hosts. 55. Which of the following is not a characteristic of pioneer species? a. They are small. b. They grow quickly. c. They reproduce slowly. d. They disperse many seeds. 56. The biggest threats to the survival of endangered species include each of the following except a. invasive species. c. ecotourism. b. habitat destruction. d. hunting. Completion Complete each statement. 57. An ecosystem consists of the living and environment. 58. The of an organism includes its habitat, its feeding habits, other aspects of its biology, and its interactions with other organisms and with the environment. 59. Bacteria that break down dead tissue are called. 60. A one-way path of feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem is called a(n). 61. An energy pyramid shows the amount of energy contained in the bodies of organisms at each level. 62. In a parasitic relationship, the organism that provides a benefit to another organism at its own expense is called the. 63. A close relationship between two dissimilar organisms is called. 64. The symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other neither benefits nor suffers harm is called. 65. species are adapted for growing well in habitats where other species are not yet present. 8

9 66. A is the average mortality rate of individuals of a species, over a typical lifetime, modeled as a curve on a graph. 67. The population size that can be sustained by an environment is called the of the environment. 68. The field of study called uses biological principles to look at the relationships between humans and the biosphere. 69. Evidence suggests that the atmospheric levels of have increased significantly in the last two hundred years and may result in a significant warming of Earth s atmosphere. 70. A location that has 17 species of birds has greater than a location that has 10 species of birds. 71. Many scientists have hypothesized that the increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere are causing global. 72. Population density refers to how many are present in a particular location. 73. is the study and measurement of the factors that determine how populations grow. 74. The countries are currently experiencing the greatest increase in population growth. 75. The struggle among organisms for the same limited natural resources is called. Essay 76. Describe the relationship called competition. Write your answer in the space below. 9

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