HW/CW #5 CHAPTER 3 PRACTICE

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1 HW/CW #5 CHAPTER 3 PRACTICE 1. The portion of Earth in which all life exists is known as A) the climax stage B) the biosphere C) a population D) a biotic community 2. The study of the interactions between organisms and their interrelationships with the physical environment is known as A) ecology B) cytology C) embryology D) physiology 3. The diagram below represents many species of plants and animals and their surroundings. What does the diagram best represent? A) a population B) a community C) an ecosystem D) the biosphere 4. Abiotic factors that affect the growth of grass in a lawn include A) bacteria and soil B) earthworms and nutrients C) moisture and minerals D) fertilizer and decomposers 5. What are the abiotic factors that characterize a forest ecosystem? A) light and biodiversity B) temperature and amount of available water C) types of procedures and decomposers D) ph and number of heterotrophs 6. One biotic factor that affects consumers in an ocean ecosystem is A) number of autotrophs B) temperature variation C) salt content D) ph of water 7. What abiotic factors affect the growth and survival of seaweed, small fish, and sharks? A) sunlight, temperature, and minerals B) sunlight, ph, and type of seaweed C) number of decomposers, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen D) number of herbivores, carbon, and food 8. Which group of organisms is an example of a population? A) leopard frogs in a stream B) birds in Colorado C) reptiles in the Sahara Desert D) trees in a forest 9. Which group can best be described as a population? A) all the honeybees in an orchard B) all the plants and animals in a forest C) the living and nonliving factors in a meadow D) the life in Earth's atmosphere 10. All the red foxes inhabiting a given forest constitute a A) population B) community C) biome D) biosphere

2 11. Which statement describes the ecosystem represented in the diagram below? 15. In an ecosystem, which component is not recycled? A) water B) energy C) oxygen D) carbon A) This ecosystem would be the first stage in ecological succession.. B) This ecosystem would most likely lack decomposers C) All of the organisms in this ecosystem are producers. D) All of the organisms in this ecosystem depend on the activities of biological catalysts. 12. Base your answer to the following question on An aquarium ecosystem is shown below. A community in this aquarium consists of the A) plants and gravel B) fish, water, and snails C) fish, plants, and snails D) water and gravel 13. Which type of biome occupies the largest area of Earth? A) marine B) grassland C) tropical rain forest D) temperate deciduous forest 14. In which areas does the greatest amount of photosynthesis occur? A) mountains B) oceans C) deserts D) tundras

3 16. An ecosystem is represented below. What would make this ecosystem self-sustaining? A) the organisms labeled A outnumber the organisms labeled B B) the organisms labeled A are equal in number to the organisms labeled B C) the type of organisms represented by B are eliminated D) materials cycle between the organisms labeled A and the organisms labeled B 17. Which ecological principle is best illustrated by the diagram below? A) In an ecosystem, material is cycled among the organisms and their environment. B) As a result of competition between two species, one species will be excluded from the niche. C) Competition within a species results in natural selection. D) An ecosystem requires a constant source of energy 18. Which processes are involved in the water cycle? A) respiration and photosynthesis, only B) transpiration and excretion, only C) respiration, photosynthesis, evaporation, and condensation, only D) respiration, photosynthesis, transpiration, excretion, evaporation, and condensation 19. Which term refers to the ecological niche of many bacteria and fungi in an ecosystem? A) decomposer B) herbivore C) producer D) scavenger 20. Decomposers are necessary in an ecosystem because they A) produce food for plants by the process of photosynthesis B) provide energy for plants by the process of decay C) can rapidly reproduce and evolve D) make inorganic materials available to plants 21. Some people make compost piles consisting of weeds and other plant materials. When the compost has decomposed, it can be used as fertilizer. The production and use of compost is an example of A) the introduction of natural predators B) the use of fossil fuels C) the deforestation of an area D) the recycling of nutrients

4 22. The process illustrated in the sequence below occurs constantly in the biosphere. 25. The diagram below represents an energy pyramid. Which type of organism is most likely represented by X? A) decomposer B) producer C) herbivore D) carnivore 23. A food web is shown below. Which organisms would most likely be found at level A? A) birds B) worms C) mammals D) algae Which organisms are necessary for the recycling of nitrogen? A) frogs B) grasshoppers C) snakes D) bacteria 24. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Lichens are composed of two organisms, a fungus that cannot make its own food and algae that contain chlorophyll. Lichens may live on the bark of trees or even on bare rock. They secrete acids that tend to break up the rock they live on, helping to produce soil. As soil accumulates from the broken rock and dead lichens, other organisms, such as plants, may begin to grow. What is the role of the algae component of a lichen in an ecosystem? A) decomposer B) parasite C) herbivore D) producer

5 26. In the diagram below, which level of organisms contains the greatest amount of available energy? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) For a producer to maintain itself, which factor must be present in its environment? A) carnivores B) herbivores C) sunlight D) parasites 28. The diagram below represents a food web. Two of the herbivores represented in this food web are A) toads and snakes B) deer and mice C) wolves and raccoons D) grasshoppers and toads

6 29. Base your answer to the following question on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. Analysis of a sample taken from a pond showed variety in both number and type of organisms present. The data collected are shown in the table below. If the frogs feed on insect larvae, what is the role of the frogs in this pond ecosystem? A) herbivore B) parasite C) consumer D) host 30. As a member of the ecological community, man must be classified as A) a producer B) a decomposer C) a consumer D) an autotroph Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the passage below which describes an ecosystem in NewYork State and on your knowledge of biology. The Pine Bush ecosystem near Albany, New York, is one of the last known habitats of the nearly extinct Karner Blue butterfly. The butterfly s larvae feed on the wild green plant, lupine. The larvae are in turn consumed by predatory wasps. The four groups below represent other organisms living in this ecosystem. 31. Which group contains decomposers? A) A B) B C) C D) D 32. Which food chain best represents information in the passage? A) lupine Karner Blue larvae wasps B) wasps Karner Blue larvae lupine C) Karner Blue larvae lupine wasps D) lupine wasps Karner Blue larvae

7 33. The removal of nearly all the predators from an ecosystem would most likely result in? A) an increase in the number of carnivore species B) a decrease in new predators migrating into the ecosystem C) a decrease in the size of decomposers D) an increase in the number of herbivores 34. One arctic food chain consists of polar bears, fish, seaweed, and seals. Which sequence demonstrates the correct flow of energy between these organisms? A) seals seaweed fish polar bears B) fish seaweed polar bears seals C) seaweed fish seals polar bears D) polar bears fish seals seaweed 35. The diagram below represents a food web composed of producers, consumers, and decomposers. Which group would represent the decomposer organisms? A) A B) B C) C D) D

8 36. A food web is represented below. When water used to cool machinery is returned to a river, it raises the river water temperature. This causes a sharp decline in small invertebrate populations. Based on the food web, a likely consequence of this change would be A) an increase in the number of clams B) a decrease in the number of water plants C) an increase in the number of crabs D) a decrease in the number of crayfish Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the food web below and on your knowledge of biology. 37. A decrease in the grass population will most immediately decrease the available energy for the A) mouse B) hawk C) snake D) frog 38. Which organisms are carnivores? A) grass and trees B) mouse, rabbit, and cricket C) deer and mountain lion D) frog, snake, and hawk

9 39. The greatest number of relationships between the organisms in an ecosystem is best shown in A) a food chain B) an energy pyramid C) a food web D) an ecological succession diagram 40. What is the primary source of energy for all the organisms in the ecosystem represented below? A) photosynthesis in the producers B) respiration in the heterotrophs C) light energy from the Sun D) minerals from the rocks

10 41. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents a pond food web, and on your knowledge of biology. Which energy pyramid most accurately shows the energy relationships between three organisms in this food web? A) B) C) D)

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