BIOSPHERE. LITHOSPHERE Source: After Christopherson, 2012, p. 13

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1 BIOSPHERE LITHOSPHERE Source: After Christopherson, 2012, p. 13

2 ECOSYSTEM ESSENTIALS 1. Introduction: the ecosystem concept 2. Green plants: the basis for life 3. Abiotic ecosystem components 4. Biotic ecosystem components 5. Ecosystem stability and succession

3 WHAT IS AN ECOSYSTEM?? An ecosystem is: (1) A self-sustaining association (2) of living plants and animals, (3) interacting with each other (4) and their non-living environment. (See Christopherson 2012 p. 556.)

4 The ecosystem concept: biotic and abiotic components. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p Nutrients Producers Consumers Decomposers

5 DECOMPOSERS Basic energy flows in biotic ecosystem components. CARNIVORES Trophic levels HERBIVORES PRIMARY PRODUCERS (autotrophs)

6 A simplified terrestrial food chain. Source: Christopherson, 2009, p. 623.

7 A food chain in action. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 571.

8 SUN Simplified energy flows in Great Salt Lake ecosystem. (After USGS.) BRINE FLIES PHYTOPLANKTON Blue green algae (Dunaliella viridis) BIRDS BRINE SHRIMP (Artemia franciscana)

9 Bird migration routes (Pacific flyway) Great Salt Lake drainage basin. (Source: Salt Lake Tribune.)

10 Black smoker at a hydrothermal vent, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Pacific Ocean. Source: Oregon State University.

11 Tubeworm colony, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Pacific Ocean. Source: Oregon State University.

12 Deep-sea crabs, Juan de Fuca Ridge, Pacific Ocean. Source: Oregon State University.

13 Microscope view of stomata in a cactus leaf. Source: Microscopy UK.

14 Function of stomata in plant leaves. Stomata open Stomata closed

15 Transpiration of water through stomata generates water pressure gradient across the tree. This draws more water up from the soil, through the plant roots and into the trunk and branches, bringing dissolved nutrients with it.

16 WHY ARE GREEN PLANTS GREEN?? Because they contain chlorophyll. Photosynthesis occurs in the presence of chlorophyll: 6 CO H 2 O + sunlight C 6 H 12 O O 2 glucose Used to make starches

17 RESPIRATION Animals respire, but plants both photosynthesize and respire. Respiration allows plants to burn sugars for energy: C 6 H 12 O O 2 glucose 6 CO H 2 O + energy NET photosynthesis = total sugars produced by photosynthesis total sugars burned by respiration

18 Tree rings indicate net photosynthesis

19 Energy receipt, use, and disposition in the biosphere. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 561.

20 Estimated net primary productivity. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p Net primary productivity: grams of carbon/m 2 /yr

21 Net primary productivity calculated by CASA- VGPM model. Source: DeLucia Lab, University of Illinois. Net primary productivity: grams of carbon/m 2 /yr

22 Net primary productivity for various ecosystems. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p NPP gc/m 2 /yr Tropical rain forest Tropical seasonal forest Temperate evergreen forest Temperate deciduous forest Boreal forest Woodland and shrubland Savanna Temperate grassland Tundra and alpine region Desert and semidesert scrub Extreme desert, rock, sand, ice Cultivated land Swamp and marsh Lake and stream Open ocean Upwelling zones Continental shelf Algal beds and reefs Estuaries

23 WHAT DO YOU NEED FOR A PLANT TO GROW?? 1. Light 2. Heat 3. Water 4. Nutrients

24 Cold Relationship between climate and ecosystems. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p Wet Hot Dry

25 Altitudinal and latitudinal zonation. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 565.

26 Köppen climate classification system. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 258.

27 Nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 568.

28 Nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 568.

29 Summer dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 568.

30 Limiting factors in tree species. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 569.

31 Limiting factors in bird species. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 569.

32 FOOD CHAIN concept and the 10% rule. 10% energy CARNIVORES 10% energy HERBIVORES PRIMARY PRODUCERS (autotrophs)

33 Ferocious predator (Gatsby)

34 Why big, fierce animals are rare: the 10% rule in action. Source: Christopherson, 2009, p. 626.

35 Why we should all be vegetarians. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 573.

36 Grazing animals. Source: National Wildlife Federation.

37 Bioaccumulation (biological amplification). Source: Christopherson, 2009, p. 628.

38 Antarctic marine food web. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 572.

39 Secondary succession from bare soil to hardwood forest. Source: California Integrated Waste Management Board. 1-2 years 3-20 years years 150+ years Climatic climax community

40 Primary succession, Hawaii. Source: Christopherson, 2009, p. 635.

41 Secondary succession, Mt. St. Helen s. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 580.

42 Secondary succession, Mt. St. Helen s. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 580.

43 Secondary succession, Mt. St. Helen s. Source: Christopherson, 2012, p. 580.