Name Hour. Chapter 4 Review

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1 Name Hour Chapter 4 Review 1. The average, year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation within a particular region are its weather. climate. greenhouse effect. d. biotic factors. 2. The greenhouse effect causes an increase in carbon dioxide. temperature. oxygen. d. water. 3. All the biotic and abiotic factors in a pond form a(an) biosphere. ecosystem community. d. niche. 4. A relationship in which one organism is helped and another organism is neither helped nor hurt is called mutualism. parasitism. competition. d. commensalisms. 5. A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit is called mutualism. parasitism. commensalisms. d. predation. 6. A type of symbiosis in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed is called mutualism. parasitism. commensalisms. d. succession. 7. Natural disturbances, such as fires or hurricanes, can result in commensalisms. competition. parasitism. d. succession.

2 8. In a tropical rain forest, the dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall trees is called the canopy. taig niche. d. understory. 9. Organisms that live near or on the ocean floor are called parasites. benthos. plankton. d. mangroves. 10. The eastern coast of the United States and most of Europe is characterized by grasslands. taig temperate deciduous forests. d. coniferous forests. 11. Marine biomes are divided into ecologically distinct zones depending on temperature and distance from shore. depth and distance from shore. the plant life present. d. the type of fish present. 12. Two terms that are paired together correctly are taiga--mosses and lichens. tundra--permafrost. temperate deciduous forest--pine trees. d. grasslands--animals. 13. The largest biome on the Earth is the marine biome. tundr taig d. desert biome. 14. The natural situation in which heat is retained by the atmosphere is the. 15. zones are located in the areas around Earth's poles. 16. zones have climates that range from hot to cold.

3 17. The zone that receives direct year-round sunlight is the. 18. The four main factors that affect aquatic ecosystems are,,, and. 19. Most freshwater ecosystems belong in one of two following categories: ecosystems and ecosystems. 20. The ocean zones based on light penetration are the and. 21. The ocean zones based on the distance from land and the depth of the ocean floor are the,, and. 22. What are the five factors that affect climate? d. e. 23. Distinguish between weather and climate. 24. What is the difference between an organism's habitat and its niche?

4 25. Name the three types of community interactions that affect an ecosystem. 26. Compare the two types of succession and give an example of each. 1. Example: 2. Example: 27. If two organisms occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time, what must be true about them? 28. How might a mountain range affect the types of plants and animals found in an area? 29. What abiotic factors characterize salt marshes? 30. What role does phytoplankton play in the food webs of many aquatic ecosystems? 31. Which ocean zone would seem least likely to support marine life?

5 32. What are the three types of freshwater wetlands? 33. What are coral reefs? Explain. 34. hot and wet year-round; home to more species than all other land biomes combined 35. warm year-round; wet and dry seasons; tall deciduous trees, tigers, termites 36. warm temperatures; frequent fires; tall perennial grasses, herbivores such as antelopes and zebras 37. variable temperatures; low precipitation; cacti and other succulents 38. warm to hot summers, cold winters, fertile soil; perennial grasses, prairie dogs 39. hot, dry summers, nutrient-poor soil; woody evergreen shrubs, chaparral, coyotes boreal forest desert tropical rain forest d. temperate woodland and shrubland e. tropical savanna f. temperate grassland g. tropical dry forest h. temperate forest i. tundra 40. cold to moderate winters, warm summers, year-round precipitation; deciduous trees, raccoons, skunks 41. long cold winters, short mild summers; needleleaf conifers, moose, lynx 42. cold, dark, long winters, permafrost; mosses, lichens sedges, caribou, musk ox

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