C) C) \C)/ I~\ Cycles of Matter ~ Y <!j - S3. This section describes three cycles in nature that recycle matter in ecosystems. Use Target Reading

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1 \ Name Date C1ass Name Oare C1ass Cycles of Matter ~ Y <!j - S3 This section describes three cycles in nature that recycle matter in ecosystems. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, make a cycle diagram that shows the water cycle. Write each event of the water cycle in a separate oval. The Water Cycle I~\ C) C) \C)/ The Water Cycle 3. Is the following sentence true or false? Water is essential for life. 4. The continuous process by which water moves from Earth's surface to the atmosphere and back is the Match the term with its definition. Term 5. evaporation 6. condensation 7. precipitation Definition a. Process by which liquid water changes to water vapor b. Forms of water that fall from clouds and reach Earth's surface c. Process by which water vapor changes to liquid water 8. Is the following sentence true or false? The energy for evaporation comes from the sun. 9. What process results in the formation of clouds? Introduction 1. Matter is made up of tiny particles called Combinations of two or more of these tiny particles are called 10. List four forms of precipitation. a. b. c. d. 2. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about matter and energy in ecosystems. a. The supply of matter in an ecosystem is limited. b. Matter is recycled in an ecosystem. c. Energy is recycled in an ecosystem. PeolSOl1 [durnnro, Inc., publishing IlS Peo""n Prennce HoIl. ~I r~h~ reserved. POOISOl1Educonon, Inc., pub~shing os Peo"on Prennce Holi. All righ~r",wed.

2 Name Dare Class Cycles of Matter (continued) The Carbon and Oxygen Cycles 11. Is the following sentence true or false? Carbon is not necessary for life. 12. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the carbon and oxygen cycles. a. Producers take in oxygen during photosynthesis. b. Producers release carbon dioxide as a result of photosynthesis. c. Consumers release carbon dioxide as a waste product. d. Consumers take in oxygen for their life processes. 13. Label the arrows to indicate whether they show the movement of oxygen or the movement of carbon dioxide through the ecosystem. 111e Nitrogen Cycle 14. Is the following sentence true or false? Most organisms use nitrogen directly from the air. IS. The process of changing free nitrogen gas into a usable form of nitrogen is called 16. Is the following sentence true or false? Most nitrogen fixation is performed by plants. P""""Edurolion,lnc.,pu~islJingosr""SOI1PrentireHoi.Mngl~r"",ed.

3 Name Date Class Biogeography rz sl/. - ESr This section describes why organisms are found where they are and how organisms can move from one place to another. The section also describes factors that limit the movement of organisms from place to place. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, identify three causes of dispersal. Write the information in the graphic organizer below. Causes ~...- Name Date Class Biogeography (continued) 6. Complete the concept map. 9can be caused by What organisms are dispersed by the wind? Introduction ~ 1. The study of where organisms live is called Continental Drift 2. What is continental drift? 3. Is the following sentence true or false? All of today's continents were part of one large land mass about 225 million years ago. 4. Is the following sentence true or false? The movement of the continents has had little impact on the distribution of species. 8. Give examples of ways organisms may be dispersed by other living things. 9. Is the following sentence true or false? Humans are not important to the dispersal of other species. 10. Species that have been carried into a new locale by people are called Limits to Dispersal 11. List three factors that limit dispersal of a species. a. b. c. 12. What are some examples of physical barriers that limit dispersal? Means of Dispersal 13. How can competition act as a barrier to dispersal? 5. The movement of organisms from one place to another is called 14. The typical weather pattern in an area over a long period of time is the area's. 15. Is the following sentence true or false? Places with similar climates tend to have species that occupy similar niches. Pea,son Edu(O~on, lnc, publishing os Pea"", Prentke Holi. Allrighl; reserved. Pearson Edu(O~on, lnc., pubnsling m Peo~on Prenfice HoU.All righl; reserved.

4 Name Date Class Ecosystems and Biomes Guided Reading and Study Biomes This section describes several different biomes, or groups of similar ecosystems, that arefound on planet Earth. The section also tells where the different biomes are located. Use Target Reading Skills As you read, compare and contrast the different biomes by completing the table below. Characteristic Temperate Tropical Desert Grass- Deciduous Boreal Tundra Rain Forest Rain land Forest Forest Forest Temperature Warm all year Precipitation Typical Organisms Introduction 1. A group of land ecosystems with similar climates and organisms is called a(n) 2. Is the following sentence true or false? It is mostly the climate conditions in an area that determine its biome. Pearson Educotion, Inc., publishing os Peorson Prentice Holi. All righls reserved.

5 Name Date Class Name Date Class Biomes (continued) Deciduous Forest Biomes Rain Forest Biomes 3. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about tropical rain forests. a. They are found only in Africa and South America. b. They receive a lot of rainfall and sunlight year-round. c. They contain a limited number of species. d. They are much warmer in some seasons than in others. 4. The tall trees in a tropical rain forest form a leafy roof called the 5. How do temperate rain forests differ from tropical rain forests? 10. Trees that shed their leaves and grow new ones each year are called 11. Circle the letter of the sentence that is true about deciduous forests. a. They receive at least 50 centimeters of rain each year. b. Their temperatures are constant throughout the year. c. Their growing season usually lasts for 10 months. d. They contain very few habitats. Boreal Forest Biomes 12. What type of trees are found in a boreal forest? 6. Where are some temperate rain forests located? 13. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about boreal forests. a. They are farther north than deciduous forests. b. They have very cold winters. Desert Biomes 7. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about deserts. a. They receive less than 10centimeters of rain per year. b. They have more evaporation than precipitation. c. They are always hot. d. They have extreme temperatures. Grassland Biomes 8. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about grasslands. a. They have many trees. b. They have rich soil. c. They receive more than 75 centimeters of rain each year. d. They are home to many of the largest animals on Earth. 9. Grasslands that are located closer to the equator than prairies are called c. They receive little snow. d. Their most common species of trees are fir, spruce, and hemlock. Tundra Biomes 14. An extremely cold, dry, land biome is the 15. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the tundra. a. It may receive no more precipitation than a desert. b. Most of its soil is frozen all year. c. Its plants include mosses and dwarf trees. d. Its only animals are insects and birds. Mountains and Ice 16. Is the following sentence true or false? If you hiked to the top of a tall mountain, you would pass through a series of biomes. 17. What are some organisms adapted to life on the ice? P",.oo fducdfioo, IIlC, publishing os Pearsoo ~entice Holi. Allrigh~,es'Ned. p","oo fducolion, In!., publisling os Pearson Prentice Holi. All righls,es,rved.

6 Name Date Class Ecosystems and Biomes Review and Reinforce Biomes Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. How does climate affect the type ofbiome found in an area? 2. What are two adaptations that enable mammals to survive cold winters? 3. Why are tropical rain forests such rich habitats for many species of animals? 4. Why does a deciduous forest have a variety of habitats? Building Vocabulary Name each biome described in the table below. Biome Climate and Organisms 5. Warm summers, cold winters; receives at least 50 cm of precipitation per year; trees shed their leaves and grow new ones each year 6. Hot in daytime, cool or cold at night; very dry; organisms are adapted to extreme temperatures and dry conditions 7. Warm, rainy summers; very cold winters with heavy snow; trees produce cones with seeds that are eaten by many animals s. Warm temperatures do not vary much throughout the year; very wet and humid; greater variety of species than any other biome 9. Extremely cold winters, warmer summers; windy; very dry; no trees, only low-growing plants 10. Receives between 25 and 75 centimeters of rain each year; populated by grasses and many large herbivores Pearson Educotion, Inc., publishing as Pearson Prentice Hall. All righls reserved.

7 Narne Date Class Ecosystems and Biomes Review and Reinforce Aquatic Ecosystems Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions on the lines provided. 1. What bodies of water make up a freshwater ecosystem? 2. What conditions do organisms face in the intertidal zone? 3. Why is the neritic zone particularly rich in living things? Building Vocabulary Write the correct term to complete each sentence below. 4. The zone is the point along the shoreline between the highest high-tide line and lowest low-tide line. 5. The point where the fresh water of a river meets the salt water of the ocean is called a/ an 6. The zone is out in the open ocean where light penetrates only to a depth of a few hundred meters. 7. The zone is a region of shallow water below the low-tide line that extends over the continental shelf. 8. The zone is almost totally dark. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing os Pearson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

8 Name Date -'-- Class Ecosystems and Biomes Enrich Hydrothermal Vent Communities There are many ecosystems within the marine environment including estuaries, the intertidal zone, and the open ocean. Within each of these ecosystems, life is rich and diverse. The open ocean can be divided into two main zones, the surface zone, where light penetrates water to a depth of a few hundred meters, and the deep zone, where there is little to no light. In the surface zone, algae are the producers, using light energy from the sun to undergo photosynthesis and produce glucose, an energy-rich compound. In the deepest areas of the ocean, where there is no light, photosynthesis cannot take place. Although vast areas ofthe deep-ocean floor are empty of life, one unique community of organisms exists in some of the deepest areas of the ocean. Hydrothermal vent communities form where super-heated water from the Earth's crust rises to the ocean floor and is released into the surrounding seawater through cracks in the ocean floor. The super-heated water is.rich in minerals, including sulfur compounds. Certain types of bacteria can produce glucose from the sulfur compounds through a process called chemosynthesis. These bacteria are producers. Like algae inthe surface zone that use light energy to produce glucose, the bacteria use the energy in the sulfur compounds to do the same. These communities have been found as deep as 2.2 kmbelow the ocean surface. The bacteria in a hydrothermal vent community can live on rocks that are heated to temperatures of C from the water gushing out of cracks in the ocean floor. They coat the hot rocks and are grazed on by shrimp. The shrimp and other grazers are eaten by crabs and fishes. Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. What process do producers in the surface zone undergo to produce glucose? 2. What are hydrothermal vent communities? 3. Which organisms are the producers in a hydrothermal vent community? What process do these organisms undergo to produce glucose? 4. How can these bacteria produce glucose without light energy from the sun? 5. Predict what would happen if the super-heated, sulfur-containing water stopped entering the surrounding ocean water. r Pearson Educotion, Inc., publishing os Peorson Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

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