Ecosystems and Communities

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1 Ecosystems and Communities Chapter 4

2 Section Outline Section The Role of Climate A. What Is Climate? 1. Weather is day to day at a particular time and place 2. Climate is year-to-year averages of a particular region 3. Caused by the interplay of many factors a. Trapping heat by the atmosphere b. Latitude c. Transport of heat by wind and ocean currents d. The amount of precipitation that results B. The Greenhouse Effect 1. The atmosphere is earth s natural insulating blanket 2. Carbon dioxide, methane, water vapor, and other atmospheric gases 3. Traps heat energy and maintains earth s temperature range

3 The Greenhouse Effect Section 4-1 Sunlight Some heat escapes into space Greenhouse gases trap some heat Atmosphere Earth s surface

4 Section Outline continued Section The Role of Climate continued C. The Effect of Latitude on Climate 1. Solar radiation does not strike the earth evenly because of the tilt of the earth s axis 2. Results in three main temperature zones a. Polar zones (light strikes at a low angle) 90 to 66.5 degrees b. Temperate zones (light varies from season to season) 66.5 to 23.5 degrees c. Tropical zone (direct or nearly direct sunlight year round) equator to 23.5 degrees D. Heat Transport in the Biosphere 1. Unequal heating of earth s surface drives winds and ocean currents 2. Prevailing winds affect climate in particular areas 3. Both air and ocean currents transport heat energy throughout the biosphere 4. Landmasses can also affect these currents

5 Section 4-1 Figures 4-1 and 4-2 Heating of the Earth s Surface and Some Factors That Affect Climate Greenhouse Effect Different Latitudes Sunlight Some heat escapes into space Sunlight Sunlight 90 N North Pole 66.5 N Arctic circle Tropic of Cancer 23.5 N Greenhouse gases trap some heat Most direct sunlight Equator Tropic of Capricorn S Atmosphere Earth s surface Sunlight Sunlight Arctic circle 66.5 S 90 S South Pole

6 Section Outline Section What Shapes an Ecosystem? A. Biotic and Abiotic Factors 1. Living things an organism may interact with 2. Non-living things an organism may interact with 3. BOTH determine the survival and growth of an organism 4. The area where an organism lives is called its habitat B. The Niche 1. The range of both physical and biological factors AND the way an organism uses those factors 2. Includes type of food, how it obtains food and its predators 3. Includes temperature and surroundings 4. Includes reproduction (when and how)

7 Abiotic and Biotic Factors Section 4-2 Abiotic Factors Biotic Factors ECOSYSTEM

8 Section Outline continued Section What Shapes an Ecosystem? continued C. Community Interactions 1. Competition for resources a. A winner will result competitive exclusion principle only one species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time 2. Predation a. Predators and prey 3. Symbiosis a. A relationship between different types of organisms that live together 1. Mutualism both depend on one another 2. Commensalism benefits one but neither benefits nor harms the other 3. Parasitism one depends on and harms the other

9 Section 4-2 Figure 4-5 Three Species of Warblers and Their Niches Cape May Warbler Feeds at the tips of branches near the top of the tree Bay-Breasted Warbler Feeds in the middle part of the tree Spruce tree Yellow-Rumped Warbler Feeds in the lower part of the tree and at the bases of the middle branches

10 Section Outline continued Section What Shapes an Ecosystem? continued D. Ecological Succession 1. Primary Succession a. The first life where no soil previously existed b. Pioneer species 2. Secondary Succession a. If something happens to disturb an existing community, new species move in b. Climax community 3. Succession in a Marine Ecosystem a. Succession can occur in any ecosystem! b. In deep marine ecosystems, like the dead whale that sinks, succession is like BOTH primary and secondary succession on land

11 Section Outline Section Biomes A. Biomes and Climate 1. Average year-after-year weather patterns of a particular area 2. Terrestrial communities that are characterized by certain soil and climate conditions and particular assemblages of plants and animals. B. The Major Biomes 1. Tropical Rain Forest 2. Tropical Dry Forest 3. Tropical Savanna 4. Desert 5. Temperate Grassland 6. Temperate Woodland and Shrubland 7. Temperate Forest 8. Northwestern Coniferous Forest 9. Boreal Forest 10. Tundra

12 Compare/Contrast Table Section 4-3 Ten Major Biomes Biome Precipitation Temperature Soil Diversity Trees Grasses Tropical Rain Forest high hot poor high dense sparse Tropical Dry Forest variable mild rich moderate medium medium Tropical Savanna variable mild clay moderate sparse dense Desert low variable poor moderate sparse sparse Temperate Grassland moderate summer hot rich moderate absent dense Temperate woodland and Shrubland summer low, winter moderate summer hot poor low medium medium Temperate Forest moderate summer moderate, winter cold Northwestern Coniferous Forest high summer mild, winter cold Boreal Forest moderate summer mild, winter cool Tundra low summer mild, winter cold rich high dense sparse rocky, acidic low dense sparse poor, acidic moderate dense sparse poor low absent medium

13 Section Outline continued Section Biomes continued C. Other Land Areas 1. Mountain Ranges a. Biotic and Abiotic conditions vary with elevation b. Various biomes can exist in the same space (separated by elevation) 2. Polar Ice Caps a. Ice dominates but plants and algae do exist b. Variety of animals including marine mammals c. Some differences between Arctic and Antarctic

14 Figure 4-11 The World s Major Land Biomes Section 4-3 Tropical rain forest Temperate grassland Temperate forest Tundra Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Desert Temperate woodland and shrubland Northwestern coniferous forest Boreal forest (Taiga) Mountains and ice caps

15 Section Outline Section Aquatic Ecosystems ** Determined by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of the overlying water ** Abiotic factors determine how these are grouped! ** A. Freshwater Ecosystems 1. Flowing-Water Ecosystems a. Begin with mountains or hills and often an underground source of water b. Very turbulent near beginning then slows down 2. Standing-Water Ecosystems a. Water flows in and out as well as within b. Particularly necessary for free-floating or weakly swimming plankton (1) Phytoplankton (2) Zooplankton 3. Freshwater Wetlands a. Water covers soil or near to surface at least part of the year b. Greatest variety bogs, marshes, swamps

16 Freshwater Pond Ecosystem Section 4-4 Frogs lay eggs in the shallow water near shore.the eggs hatch in the water as tadpoles and move to the land as adults. Spoonbill The shore is lined with grasses that provide shelter and nesting places for birds and other organisms. Duck Frog Water lilies Mosquito larvae Duckweed Dragonfly Phytoplankton The roots of water lilies cling to the pond bottom, while their leaves, on long flexible stems, float on the surface. Snail Diving beetle The bottom of the pond is inhabited by decomposers and other organisms that feed on particles drifting down from the surface. Hydra Pickerel Fish share the pond with turtles and other animals. Many of them feed on insects at the water s edge. Snail Trout Crayfish Plankton and the organisms that feed on them live near the surface where there is enough sunlight for photosynthesis. Microscopic algae are among the most important producers. Benthic crustaceans

17 Section Outline Section Aquatic Ecosystems B. Estuaries 1. Wetlands formed where river meets sea 2. Mixture of fresh and salt water (brackish water) 3. Most energy enters ecosystem through detritus (not producers) 4. Salt Marshes are temperate zone estuaries (like the Chesapeake Bay) 5. Mangrove Swamps are coastal tropical wetlands (Florida Everglades)

18 Section Outline Section Aquatic Ecosystems C. Marine Ecosystems 1. Intertidal Zone regular and extreme changes in the surroundings; closest to coast 2. Coastal Ocean low tide mark to edge of continental shelf; richest in life 3. Coral Reefs exist in tropical coastal oceans 4. Open Ocean edge of continental shelf and extends outward; high pressure, frigid temps and total darkness 5. Benthic Zone ocean floor; covers BOTH coastal ocean and open ocean zones

19 Figure 4-17 Zones of a Marine Ecosystem Section 4-4 land Coastal ocean 200m 1000m Photic zone Open ocean 4000m 6000m Aphotic zone Ocean trench 10,000m Continental shelf Continental slope and continental rise Abyssal plain

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