Interrelationships. 1. Temperature Wind Fire Rainfall Soil Type Floods Sunlight Altitude Earthquake

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1 Interrelationships Abiotic Factors A. A Partial List 1. Temperature Wind Fire Rainfall Soil Type Floods Sunlight Altitude Earthquake B. Aquatic Adaptations 1. Pumping salt out a. Salt water fish 2. Pumping water out a. Fresh water fish 3. Antifreeze in blood a. Antarctic fish C. Terrestrial Adaptations 1. Waxy leaves a. Desert plants 2. Nocturnal lifestyles a. Desert rodents 3. Fire resistant roots 4. Fire germinated seeds Succession A. Definition 1. Process by which one community of organisms replaces another a. Species diversity increases during succession b. Final community, determined by climate, is called a climax community B. Primary Succession 1. Changes that proceed from bare rock or sand C. Secondary Succession 1. Begins on soil where the community has been disturbed a. Mount St. Helens b. Nuclear blast sites Terrestrial Biomes A. Biomes 1. Regions of the world with similar physical environments 2. Named for most conspicuous types of vegetation 3. Climate factors a. Rainfall (precipitation) b. Temperature c. Altitude d. Latitude 4. Boundaries are indestinct

2 Terrestrial Biomes (continued) B. Tropical Rain Forests 1. Equatorial lowlands a. Constant temperature year long b. Many arboreal animals c. Few terrestrial animals 2. Deforestation a. Hardwood demand b. Beef ranching c. Homesteading (subsistance farming) C. Savanna 1. Tropical or subtropical grasslands a. Poor soil b. Large herbivores c. Few trees D. Deserts 1. Identified by lack of precipitation a. Deserts can be cold or hot (1) Antarctica is a cold desert b. Nocturnal animal life c. Plants are well adapted to short water supply E. Chaparral 1. Brushland communities composed of dense shrubs a. Usually coastal b. Mild, rainy winters c. Plants are adapted to frequent fires F. Temperate Grasslands 1. Plains and prairies in temperate regions a. Trees found only near streams b. Wide variety of animal life c. 25 to 28 inches annual precipitation G. Temperate forests 1. Deciduous and conifer forests of mid-latitude regions a. Cold winters and hot summers b. Abundant rain and snowfall c. Wide variety of animal life H. Taiga 1. Coniferous (Evergreen) Forests a. Found at high elevations b. Snow accounts for most of the precipitation c. Animals are adapted to long, cold winters I. Tundra 1. Areas with continuosly frozen ground (permafrost) a. Near polar regions b. Small plants limited by frozen soil and prolonged dark season c. Animals adapted to extreme cold; birds often migrate

3 Aquatic Communities A. Abiotic Factors 1. Sunlight Water temp. Turbidity Water depth Salinity Pollution Current Freezing Dissolved gases B. Aquatic Systems 1. Rivers and streams a. Photosynthesis takes place close to banks (1) Shallow, slow moving water b. Animal life depends on temperature, oxygen, turbidity 2. Ponds and lakes a. Divided into strata (layers) (1) Photosynthesis takes place in upper strata b. Phytoplankton (1) Microscopic, photosynthetic c. Zooplankton (1) Microscopic, heterotrophic C. Marine Systems (oceans) 1. Light dependent zones a. Photic zone (1) Upper layer where photosynthesis takes place b. Aphotic zone (1) Insufficient light for photosynthesis 2. Depth dependent zones a. Intertidal (Littoral) zones (1) Area between high and low tides b. Neritic zone (1) Shallow water over the continental shelf c. Open ocean

4 Energy in Ecosystems A. Trophic Structures 1. Manner in which energy moves through an ecosystem a. Producers (1) Autotrophs b. Primary consumers (1) Herbivores that eat producers c. Secondary consumers (1) Carnivores that eat herbivores d. Tertiary consumers (1) Carnivore eats another carnivore e. Decomposers (1) Consume decaying producers and consumers 2. Each ecosystem has its own unique trophic structure B. Food Chains 1. Many consumers have a number of food sources 2. Energy is lost in each step up a food chain a. 10 percent rule (1) Only 10 percent of the energy from one level on the food chain is available to the next level Chemical Cycles A. Carbon Cycle 1. Carbon is fixed by plants 2. Carbon is given off by consumers 3. Organisms containing carbon form fossil fuels 4. Burning fossil fuels releases carbon B. Nitrogen Cycle 1. Bacteria fix nitrogen from the air 2. Consumers and producers incorporate nitrogen into their tissues 3. Nitrogen can be fixed industrially from the air a. Production of ammonia 4. Decay processes return nitrogen to the air 5. Nitrogen from fertilizers may contaminate water sources C. Water Cycle 1. Plants absorb water from the soil 2. Transpiration and respiration return water to the atmosphere 3. Precipitation returns water to the soil 4. Nonmetal oxides in the atmosphere combine with water to form acid rain

5 Unwanted Materials A. Sources of Unwanted Materials 1. Manufacturing 2. Use of fossil fuels 3. Pesticides and herbicides 4. Nuclear waste 5. Packaging and consumer goods 6. Household cleaners and solvents B. Concentration Phenomenon 1. Toxins become more concentrated as one moves up the food chain a. Toxins may be retained at much higher levels than foodstuffs

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