BIOMES. Copyright Cmassengale

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1 BIOMES

2 Continental drift - slow motion of continents

3 Dispersal of organisms Movement of organisms from 1 place to another Dispersal is usually caused by wind, water or living things Species that evolve in an area are called native species Species that are carried to a location are exotic species.

4 Climate and biomes The typical weather patterns over a long period of time is the climate.

5 Biomes are a group of ecosystems with similar climates (temperature and rainfall) and organisms.

6 Rain Forest Biomes

7 Tropical Rain Forest - found near the equator -

8 Tropical Rain forests have many species of plants and animals

9 Temperate Rain Forest - northwestern U.S., Chile, South Australia - more moderate temperatures, but still have a lot of rain.

10 Temperate Rain Forests have many types of plants and animals

11 COFFEE BEANS

12

13 Desert Biomes

14 Deserts: areas that receive less than 25cm of rain per year. Most deserts get very hot during the day and get very cold at night.

15 In the Desert Biome, plants (cactus) have the ability to hold water for later use and most animals (scorpion) are nocturnal.

16

17

18 Grassland

19 Grasslands receive more rain than the desert - enough to support grasses and bushes, but not enough to support trees.

20 Savannas are like the grasslands except that they do receive enough rain to support small trees.

21 Animals that appear in both include: bison, antelopes, giraffes and kangaroos.

22 Deciduous Forest The weather in this area changes with the seasons. It becomes very cold in the winter and hot in the summer. There is enough rainfall to support large trees.

23 Trees in this biome drop their leaves in the fall and new ones sprout each spring.

24 Animals include deer, skunks, insects and bears.

25 Coniferous Forest The weather here is colder.winters have much more snow. Summers don t get quite as warm.

26 Coniferous trees make-up most of the plant life here.

27 Animals in this biome include deer, elk, moose and wolves.

28 Tundra The land here is very cold and dry. It has a permanent layer of frost all year (permafrost).

29 Plants include mosses, shrubs and willow trees.

30 Animals such as wolves, foxes, hares and caribou grow thick fur during the winter to keep warm.

31 Freshwater Biomes Algae is the most abundant plant in the water biomes because sunlight has to be there in order for photosynthesis to occur. Freshwater biomes are divided into 2 groups: ponds and lakes and streams and rivers

32 Ponds and Lakes Lakes are deeper than ponds. Sometimes ponds are shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom which lets plants grow.

33 Animals include those that live on the shore (snails and frogs) and those that live in the water (catfish).

34 Streams and Rivers The water runs fast in these areas. Few plants can survive in the fast current, so consumers must rely on leaves and seeds that fall in.

35 Animals have to be strong enough to fight the current (trout) or have to be able to cling to rocks.

36 Marine Biomes Divided into 4 sections: Estuaries, Intertidal Zone, Neritic Zone, and Surface/Deep Zone.

37 Estuaries This is where the water from the rivers and streams runs into the ocean, making a mixture of salt and fresh water.

38 Since sunlight is plentiful in this area, so is the plant life. An example is marsh grass.

39 Animals in this area include crabs, worms, oysters and fish.

40 Neritic Zone Area from low-tide level to end of continental shelf. Water is fairly shallow, so photosynthesis can occur.

41 Many types of fish and plant life.

42 Surface Zone(Limnetic) The top few meters of the open ocean where light can still pass through.

43 Algae is the main plant and many animals such as tuna and whale.

44 The animals there live on the remains of other organisms that sink to the ocean floor. Squid live in this area.

45 Causes of Extinction Aside from natural disasters, actions by humans such as: Habitat destruction Poaching Pollution and Introducing an exotic species can cause extinction.

46 Environmental Issues Resource Use Population Growth Pollution

47 Resource Use Renewable Resources -natural resources that can be replaced in a relatively short amount of time (sun, wind, rain )

48 Nonrenewable Resources -those that either take a very long time to replace or cannot be replaced at all (coal and oil)

49 Environmental Science - The study of natural processes that occur in the environment and how humans can affect them.

50 Factors that affect biodiversity in an ecosystem include area, climate and diversity of niches.

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