Chapter 16 Astronomy Study Guide. VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteorite meteoroid

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1 NAME: Period: asteroid asteroid belt comet ellipse force Galilean moons gas giants Chapter 16 Astronomy Study Guide VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteorite gravity meteoroid greenhouse effect nuclear fusion heliocentric system outer planets inertia retrograde rotation inner planets revolution meteor rotation satellite solar system sun telescope terrestrial planets History of astronomy: Know chp 16 section 1 Possible essay/short answer about Galileo and his evidence of the heliocentric theory COMETS, ASTEROIDS, AND METEORS: Describe comets and asteroids and meteoroids; study chp. 16 section 5 Be able to label the parts of a comet Compare and contrast meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites PLANETS: Make a flashcard for each planet. Study chp. 16 sections 3 and 4 and planet video worksheets. Know the characteristics of the Inner and Outer Planets Know the characteristics of each planet Know the Galilean moons List the planets in order from the sun What keeps a planet in orbit around the sun? ASTRONOMY EXAM IS Wednesday, 2/6 Review sessions are _Monday, 2/4 and Tuesday, 2/5 Monday --- 7:45-8:23 McIver Tuesday --- 7:45-8:23 Simpson 3:30-4:15 Tucker 3:30-4:15 Pickett_ Flashcards are due Wednesday, 2/6 Study Guide due Monday 2/4

2 Describing the Solar System Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions. Ancient Greek Model Ptolemy's Geocentric Model Copernicus' Heliocentric Model 1. What is the main difference between the geocentric and heliocentric models of planetary motion? 2. How did Galileo s observations of Jupiter and Venus support Copernicus model? (What did Jupiter s moons prove? What did Venus s phases show?) 3. How do gravity and inertia keep the planets in orbit around the sun? Building Vocabulary Fill in each blank to complete each statement. 4. The sun-centered system of planets developed by Copernicus is an example of a(n) system. 5. An object s tends to keep a moving object continuing in a straight line and a stationary object in place. 6. An Earth-centered system of planets is known as a(n) system.

3 Characteristics of the Sun Understanding Main Ideas Label the diagram of the sun below using the following words. Chromosphere core corona photosphere prominence sunspot Building Vocabulary Match each term with its description by writing the letter of the correct description on the line beside the term. 7. solar flare 8. core 9. chromosphere 10. sunspot 11. corona 12. nuclear fusion 13. photosphere 14. prominence a. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that makes light b. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that has a reddish glow c. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that looks like a halo during an eclipse d. areas of gas on the sun that are cooler than the gases around them e. reddish loops of gas that link parts of sunspot regions f. explosions that occur when the loops in sunspot regions suddenly connect g. the center of the sun where nuclear fusion takes place h. the joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium

4 Characteristics of the Inner Planets Understanding Main Ideas Label the diagram with the names of the inner planets. 1. Write the name(s) of the INNER planet or planets the statement describes. 5. has a rocky surface percent is covered with water 7. rotates in the opposite direction from most other planets and moons 8. called the red planet because of the color of the dust 9. has at least one moon 10. similar to each other in size, density, and internal structure 11. has almost no atmosphere 12. atmosphere so heavy and thick that it would crush a human 13. has a tilted axis so that the planet has seasons 14. atmosphere has low air pressure and is mostly carbon dioxide Building Vocabulary Write a definition for each of the following terms. 15. terrestrial planets 16. retrograde rotation 17. greenhouse effect

5 Characteristics of the Outer Planets Understanding Main Ideas Answer the following questions in the spaces provided. 1. Label the four outer planets. 2. Why doesn t the gas on a gas giant escape into space, as it has on Mercury? 3. What other object in the solar system has a composition similar to that of the gas giants? 4. What planet is by far the most massive of all the planets that revolve around the sun? 5. What are Saturn s rings made of? 6. Why did astronomers know where to look to discover Neptune? Building Vocabulary Write a definition for the following term in the space provided. 7. gas giant

6 Comets, Asteroids, and Meteors Understanding Main Ideas Complete the following table. Object Description Location/Movement Asteroid Comet Meteoroid Answer the following questions. 1. Explain what happens to a meteoroid in order for it to become a meteorite. 2. Draw a comet and label these parts of a comet: head, nucleus, coma, tail. 3. How can you tell a meteor from a comet? Building Vocabulary From the list below, choose the term that best completes each sentence. asteroid asteroid belt comet meteor meteoroid meteorite 4. When a meteoroid enters Earth s atmosphere, friction causes it to burn up and produce a streak of light called a(n). 5. A chunk of ice and dust whose orbit is usually a long narrow ellipse is a(n). 6. If a meteoroid hits Earth s surface, it is called a(n). 7. An object that revolves around the sun, but is too small to be considered a planet, is a(n). 8. A chunk of rock or dust in space that usually comes from a comet or an asteroid is called a(n). 9. The region of the solar system between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is known as the.

7 Spin Cycles Step 1: Read Planets in our solar system are constantly moving. Each planet spins like a globe. One complete spin is a rotation. Every planet also makes an orbit, or circle, around the sun. The table below tells how long these movements take. Look over it carefully. Note: Measurements are in Earth hours, days, and years. Planet Rotation Time Orbit Time Mercury 59 Days 88 Days Venus 243 Days 225 Days Earth 24 Hours 365 Days Mars 25 Hours 687 Days Jupiter 10 Hours 12 Years Saturn 11 Hours 29 Years Uranus 17 Hours 84 Years Neptune 16 Hours 165 Years Pluto 6 Days 248 Years Step 2: Use the table to decide whether each statement below is true or false. 1. Pluto s rotation takes less time than any other. 2. Venus is the only planet whose rotation takes longer than its orbit. 3. Mars and Earth take roughly the same time to complete a rotation. 4. Mars and Earth take roughly the same time to complete an orbit. 5. Saturn s orbit takes three times longer than Jupiter s. 6. Jupiter can do 20 orbits in less time than Pluto needs for just one. 7. Pluto s orbit takes longer than all of the other orbits combined. 8. Venus s rotation takes longer than all the other rotations combined. 9. Four planets do a rotation in less than a single Earth day. 10. Mercury completes three rotations during each orbit.

8 1. Why did the asteroid belt form? 2. Why does Mercury have only a thin atmosphere? 3. How do astronomers explain that Venus rotates in the opposite direction from most planets and moons? 4. Name TWO major ways that the inner/terrestrial planets differ from the gas giants? 5. Which way does a comet s tail always point (away or towards the sun)? WHY?? 6. How would Earth move if the sun (including its gravity) suddenly disappeared? Explain!! 7. Explain why Venus is hotter than it would be without its atmosphere? 8. Compare and contrast meteoroids, meteors, and meteorites.

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