When you have completed this workbook, you should know and understand the following:

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2 When you have completed this workbook, you should know and understand the following: Standard Description Passed SciBer Text III.1.a III.1.b. Understand and correctly use unit vocabulary. List the planets in order. Using a table, identify physical properties of the components of the Solar System (i.e., planets, dwarf planets. comets, asteroids, meteors)

3 Can You Planet? (From Universe At Your Fingertips, Astronomical Society of the Pacific) Page 1 Sort out the planets. Next to each planet s name, put yes if the statement is true (Jupiter is larger than Earth Yes) or no if it is not true (Earth has rings No). Use this information to place the planets on the Venn Diagram! (Use the Planetary Fact Sheet on page 26.) Planetary Facts Helping Table Earth Jupiter Mars Mercury Neptune Saturn Uranus Venus Larger than Earth Has Ring(s) Has Moon(s)

4 Use the information from the chart to place the planets in the correct circle or intersection of circles. Page 2 Has moon(s) Has rings & moons Has rings

5 Use the information from the chart to place the planets in the correct circle or intersection of circles! Page 3 Larger than Earth Has moon(s) & larger than Earth Has rings & larger than Earth Has moon(s), rings & larger than Earth Has moon(s) Has moon(s) & rings Has rings

6 Use the Venn Diagram, chart, and fact sheet to answer the following questions. Page 4 1. Which planets are larger than Earth? 2. Which two sets of planets are closest in size? 3. What percent of the planets are smaller than Earth? % (# of smaller planets divided by eight) 4. Which planets have moons? 5. Which planet has the most moons? 6. What is the total number of known moons in our Solar System? 7. What is the average number of moons per planet? (total number of moons divided by 8) 8. Which planets fit into all three categories? 9. Which planets have days that are longer than 24 hours?

7 Kids Discover Planets Worksheet Page 5 Before Reading What do you know about the planets in the solar system? In Before Reading, write true if you think the statement is true. Write false if you think the statement is not true. Then read KIDS DISCOVER Planets. Check back to find out if you were correct. Write the correct answer and its page number. Before Reading After Reading Page Number 1. Earth is one of the gaseous planets. 2. The Sun formed about a million years ago from a collapsing cloud of gas. 3. Mercury is the planet closest to the Sun. 4. The hottest planet in the solar system is Jupiter. 5. Much of Earth looks blue from space because more than 70 percent of its surface is covered in water. 6. A day on Mars is less than an hour longer than a day on Earth. 7. Planets are often formed after a star is formed. 8. Jupiter has only four moons. 9. Saturn s rings are made of pieces of ice or rocks coated in ice. 10. Triton, Neptune s largest moon, is one of the coldest places in the solar system.

8 It s in the Reading Page 6 After reading KIDS DISCOVER Planets, choose the best answer for each question. Fill in the circle. Find your answer on the pages shown in the book icon next to each question. 1. Which of these is not one of the criteria the group of astronomers used to identify an object in space as a planet? a. Its gravity squishes it into a round ball. b. It must orbit the Sun. c. It must have at least one moon, or satellite. d. It must have cleared all other objects in its orbital path. 2. What are the three criteria that a space object must meet to be considered a planet? a. b. c. 3. Which planets are rocky like Earth? Which are not? 4. How are Ceres and Pluto alike?

9 5. What causes the surface of Mercury to fold like the skin of a dry apple? Page 7 a. The heat of the Sun. b. The lack of water. c. The slight shrinking of the planet as its iron core cools. d. The freezing temperatures in the shadowed regions at the poles. 6. What is the largest known surface feature of Mercury? 7. How was the Caloris Basin on Mercury formed? a. By a volcano. c. By a meteorite. b. By a comet. d. By an asteroid. 8. What is a likely reason for Venus being hotter than Mercury? 9. How is Mars like Earth? a. It has a thin carbon dioxide atmosphere. b. It is cold, dry, and barren. c. Its winter temperatures may be 200 degrees below freezing. d. It has seasons. 10. How is Earth invading Mars? 12. Which of Jupiter s moons may have life in its buried ocean? a. Io c. Ganymede b. Europa d. Callisto

10 13. What makes up the white clouds of Jupiter? Page 8 a. Organic chemicals. c. Faint rings of dust. b. Ammonia ice crystals. d. Gases sinking into the atmosphere. 14. What is the Great Red Spot? Why is it red? 15. Why are Saturn s cloud bands less prominent than Jupiter s cloud bands? a. They are made up of ice. b. Giant storms erupt in the atmosphere. c. They are too thin to be seen. d. The top of Saturn s atmosphere is hazier 16. What makes up Saturn s thousands of rings? 17. For what was Saturn named? 18. What are the fractures of Saturn s moon Enceladus? 19. How is Pluto now like Ceres? a. It is now classified as a dwarf planet. b. It has three moons. c. It is 3.5 billion miles from the Sun. d. It was once classified as a planet.

11 20. Why do Neptune and Uranus appear blue-green in color? Page 9 a. They have very hazy atmospheres. b. They are giant balls of water. c. They have thick atmospheres of hydrogen. d. Methane is in the atmosphere. 21. How far are Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto from the Sun? 22. What is 2003 UB 313? What is its nickname? How far from the Sun is it? 23. Name the planets in order by their DISTANCE from the Sun. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. 24. Name the planets in order from the SMALLEST to the LARGEST. a.

12 Page 10 b. c. d. e. f. g. h. Classifying the Solar System Introduction Scientists classify planets in many different ways. Today you work for NASA and will use information you gather from the Solar System Data Sheet to make decisions on how you will classify the planets. The Task 1. Classify each of the eight planets using these criteria: Its orbit in relation to Earth Inferior (between Earth & Sun) Superior (farther away from the Sun than the Earth). The make-up of its surface Rocky (Terrestrial) Gas (Jovian) Its size or diameter Giant (larger than Earth) Small (smaller than Earth).

13 Page 11 Its ability to be seen by our eyes Classical (planet that can be seen without a telescope Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn) Modern (planets than cannot be seen without a telescope) Classifying the Solar System 1. The following planets are considered a. Inferior Planets b. Superior Planets The following planets are a. Rocky (Terrestrial) Planets

14 b. Gas (Jovian) Planets Page The following planets are a. Giant Planets (larger than Earth) b. Small Planets (smaller than Earth) The following planets are a. Classical Planets (planet that can be seen without a telescope)

15 4. Page b. Modern Planets (planets than cannot be seen without a telescope) Dwarf Planets , Describe the following and identify either where they are found. a. Comet b. Asteroid c. Meteor

16 Page 14 History of Saturn Discovery (modified from Cassini Educators Guide) Procedure 1. Look at the group of the History of Discovery Cards. Make sure you understand the information on the cards. 2. Complete the timeline based on the information from the cards. After You Have the Time Line - Final Choices for This Assignment Select and answer one (1) of the following. (Your response must be complete, neatly written, and fully cover the topic. A sentence or two will not adequately answer the question): Compose a letter to Galileo explaining how scientific understanding of Saturn has changed since the time of his observations. Address questions like: What news would be most exciting to share with Galileo? What advances have been made in technology? What additional discoveries were made due to these advances? What do we hope to learn by the year 2010, after the Cassini spacecraft has toured the Saturn system? Explain the different categories of technologies that have been used to explore Saturn. Explain why we use spacecraft to explore Saturn. What is the advantage of having Cassini orbit Saturn vs. having Pioneer 11 and the Voyagers fly-by the Saturn?

17 Final Part of the Assignment Page 15 After you have selected your topic, write your information here.

18 Page 16 Ceres and Pluto: Dwarf Planets as a New Way of Thinking about an Old Solar System 1. In your own words, describe a planet. Definition of a Planet The following is the IAU definition of a planet, dwarf planet as well as a definition of asteroid. A DWARF PLANET is a celestial body that is in orbit around the Sun. has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, (In English, this means the dwarf planet is mostly round!) has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. is not a satellite (revolving around a planet). A PLANET is a celestial body that is in orbit around the Sun, has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape. (In English, this means the dwarf planet is mostly round!) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. is not a satellite. (revolving around a planet).

19 An ASTEROID (or minor planet) Page 17 orbits the Sun inside the orbit of Jupiter. does not have sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium shape (it is not round). has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. is not a satellite. 2. Using the attached definitions, write down an explanation of the planet, dwarf planet. 1. Definition of a Dwarf Planet Definition of a Planet

20 Definition of an Asteroid or Minor Planet Page The following is an image of Ceres (Image 1), an example of a dwarf planet, and the location of Ceres within the solar system (Image 2). Note in the image at right that the inner planets and Jupiter have cleared most of the neighboring bodies from their orbits while Ceres and Vesta have not. Note also that Ceres is nearly round, while Vesta (Image 3) is more irregular in shape.

21 Page Restate the explanation of the term Dwarf Planet in your own words. 4. Use the following images and information to classify the bodies as a planet, dwarf planet, or asteroid. Body has cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid

22 Page 20 Body has not cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid Body has not cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid

23 Page 21 Body has cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid

24 Page 22 Body has not cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid Body has cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid

25 Page 23 Body has not cleared its neighborhood. Planet Dwarf Planet Asteroid

26 Page Compare and contrast the definitions of a planet, dwarf planet, and asteroid by completing the Venn diagram. Dwarf Planet Planet Planet/ Dwarf Planet Asteroid/Planet/Dwarf Planet Planet/Asteroid Asteroid/Dwarf Planet Asteroid

27 Planet Research Project Page 25 Select a planet that interests you. After you have selected you planet, write a two-page research paper about that planet. Include the following information: Basic planet facts (diameter, distance from Sun, order from Sun, ranking, atmosphere, etc.) Describe the surface of the planet. Can a human live on the planet? Identify space probes that have visited the planet. At least five interesting facts about the planet. Include a drawing of your planet as a part of the report (use colored pencils). This is in addition to your two-page research paper.

28 Planetary Fact Sheet Page 26 Diameter Length of Day Moons Rings Earth 12,800 km 23 hrs 56 min 1 No Jupiter 143,000km 9 hrs 55 min 63 Yes Mars 6,800 km 24 hrs 7 min 2 No Mercury 4,900 km 59 days 0 No Neptune 49,500 km 16 hrs 7 min 13 Yes Saturn 120,600 km 10 hrs 39 min 62 Yes Uranus 51,100 km 17 hrs 14 min 27 Yes Venus 12,100 km 243 days 0 No Planetary Fact Sheet Diameter Length of Day Moons Rings Earth 12,800 km 23 hrs 56 min 1 No Jupiter 143,000km 9 hrs 55 min 63 Yes Mars 6,800 km 24 hrs 7 min 2 No Mercury 4,900 km 59 days 0 No Neptune 49,500 km 16 hrs 7 min 13 Yes Saturn 120,600 km 10 hrs 39 min 62 Yes Uranus 51,100 km 17 hrs 14 min 27 Yes Venus 12,100 km 243 days 0 No

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