Motion of the planets

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1 Our Solar system

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3 Motion of the planets Our solar system is made up of the sun and the 9 planets that revolve around the sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto (maybe?)

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5 Early Beliefs about the Solar Greek astronomers believed that the earth was the center of the universe Ptolemy believed this 150 AD Polish astronomer System

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7 Copernicus believed that the sun was the center and the planets orbited in a perfect circle around it 1500 AD

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9 Established some laws of planetary motion based on mathematical findings 1600 AD Johannes Kepler

10 Kepler s Laws Planets orbits are elliptical thus planets are not the same distance from the sun at all times Planets do not always move at the same speed The time it takes a planet to make 1 revolution depends on the planets distance form the sun *you must know Kepler s three laws.

11 Planetary Motion Perihelion is the point closest to the sun January 3 Aphelion- is the point farthest from the sun July 4 Planets do not always move at the same speed Planets move faster when coming into perihelion Planets move slower coming into aphelion. Gravitational pull is what causes the change in speed Average speed of 67 mi/hr 108,000 km/hr

12 Planetary Motion Inertia and gravity are what keep planets in orbit Inertia is the tendency of an object to keep its speed and direction

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14 Verifying Kepler s 2 nd Equal area in equal time. Area = ½ base X height A 1 = A 2?? A 2 A 1

15 The inner planets

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17 Mercury planet closest to the sun Diameter of 4880 km about 1/3 that of earth A Mercury year is 88 earth days A mercury day is about 59 earth days Temperature on mercury ranges from 450 oc during the day to 170 C at night Mercury has iron core which gives it a magnetic field and holds a thin veil of gases Mercury is only visible just before sun rise or just after sunset Seventh brightest object in the sky

18 Diameter 4878 km Average Distance from Sun 57.8 million km Size compared to Earth 0.4x Gravity compared to Earth 0.38 Surface Temperature Max Day Side 467 C Min Night Side -183 C Length of day 58 Earth days 16 hours Length of year 87.9 days Eccentricity of Orbit Density 5.43 g/cm 3 Atmosphere Oxygen - 56% Sodium - 35% Helium - 8% Potassium & Hydrogen - 1%

19 Mercury Surface

20 Mariner 10 the first space craft to take pictures of Mercury

21 Venus The planet between Mercury and Earth Venus diameter is km so it is about the size of earth Venus is earth s closest neighbor Venus rotates from east to west opposite of earth s rotation A Venus day is 243 earth days A Venus year is 225 Earth days

22 Venus surface Temperature averages about 470 C The pressure of the atmosphere is 90 x that of earth Venus has craters, active volcanoes, mountains, valleys and plains The large amounts of CO2 in Venus atmosphere trap and hold heat

23 Earth The only planet that supports life Average temperature 14 C 70 % of earth surface is covered by water Diameter is 12,756 km Constant change on the surface of earth

24 Mars visible from earth without a telescope Mars has a diameter of 6794 km (about ½ of earth s) Mars day is 24 hours, 37 minutes Mars year is 687 earth days Mars has 2 moons that are not round Phobos diameter 27 km Deimos diameter 15 km

25 Mars appears to have seasons represented by expansion and retreating of the ice caps The north cap is frozen water The south cap is frozen CO2 Mars contains the same elements as earth, the coating of iron oxide makes mars appear red Mars has huge craters and inactive volcanoes and huge canyons. Mountains on mars are higher and canyons deeper than on Earth. Temperature ranges from 35 C to -170 C

26 Quiz 1. What was Ptolemy s idea of the solar systems order? 2. Give Kepler s three laws. 3. What was Copernicus's belief about the planets orbit and order of the solar system? 4. What is perihelion and what time of year is the earth s perihelion? 5. Name the inner planets. 6. What two things are responsible for keeping a planet in orbit? 7. Give the order of the planets from the sun outward. 8. Which planets appear as bright objects in the morning and evening sky? 9. What part of the orbit is a planet moving its fastest?

27 Asteroids and Meteoroids Asteroids are minor planets that orbit the sun Asteroids are in a band between mars and Jupiter Asteroids range in diameter from 16 km to 160 km Asteroids theories Asteroid are pieces of another planet Asteroids maybe pieces of two planets that collided Bits that did not ever fuse to form planets

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29 Meteoroids, meteors and meteorites Meteoroids are pieces of rock or metal in outer space Meteor when a meteoroid starts glowing because it has entered the earth atmosphere Meteorite is the result of a meteor hitting the earth surface Millions of meteoroids approach the earth s surface each day

30 The outer planets

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34 Jupiter Diameter 143,200 km, 11 x that of earth Mass causes gravity to be 2.5 times that of earth Jupiter rotates once every 9 hours and 55 minutes The speed of Jupiter s rotation causes it be elliptical Its revolution around the sun takes 11.9 Earth years

35 Jupiter Jupiter s atmosphere is composed of several layers The outer layer is frozen ammonia The inner layer mostly hydrogen and helium Surface of Jupiter Possibly liquid hydrogen with a mote dense layer of hydrogen underneath The core is thought to be iron and silicone Jupiter emits twice as much energy as it receives from the sun Jupiter s great red spot is a swirling mass of gasses

36 Jupiter has 16 moons Ganymede s diameter 5275 km Callisto s diameter 4820 km (rings) Europa s diameter 3130 km (Cracked egg look) IO Diameter 3630 km has active volcanoes

37 Ganymede

38 Callisto

39 Europa

40 IO

41 Saturn Has a diameter of 120,000 km and is the second largest planet Saturn has 95 times the mass of earth and 9.4 times the diameter

42 Saturn series of rings that revolve around the planet The rings are composed of frozen chunks of materials Outer ring diameter is 275,000 Saturn has 18 moons Saturn rotates in 10 hours and 40 minutes Saturn revolves in earth years Titan is Saturn s largest moon, 5,800 km and an atmosphere of methane

43 Titan

44 Uranus Diameter of 51,800 km Has a blue green color caused by methane Rotation is 17 hours and 14 minutes Rotates East to West on its side Revolution is 84 earth years Five moons Has 11 rings

45 Neptune Pale blue in color Diameter of 49,500 Rotation is 16hours and 10 minutes Revolution is 165 earth years Two known moons Atmosphere is helium and hydrogen

46 Pluto The last known planet Occasionally Neptune is farther from the sun than Pluto Pluto diameter is 3000 km Rotation 153 hours Revolution is 248 earth years Pluto has a moon Charon that is almost as large as itself Sometimes are considered a double planet

47 Comets Comets are space objects made of minerals dust gas and ice Comet means long hair Comets have a head and tail

48 The head contains most of the matter Coma The tail always points away from the sun and reflects sunlight Comets Solar wind keeps the comet tail pointing away from the sun Comets have a regular orbit pattern Haley s comet comes every 76 years Comet s orbits are very elliptical compared to a planet

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51 Origin of the solar system Two main theories One is the Companion Star Theory The other is the Dust Cloud Theory

52 Review 1. What is the difference between a meteroid, meteor and a meteorite? 2. What planets make up the inner planets? 3. Which inner planet rotate from east to west? 4. Which planet has the shortest orbital period? 5. Which planet is nearest to the earth? 6. Which planet has a high temperature and pressure? 7. Which planet has a volcano three times as tall as Mt. Everest? 8. This planet has cloud layers composed of sulfuric acid. 9. This planet other than earth has a north and south polar ice cap. 10.This planet supports life.

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