Solar System revised.notebook October 12, 2016 Solar Nebula Theory

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1 Solar System revised.notebook The Solar System Solar Nebula Theory Solar Nebula was a rotating disk of dust and gas w/ a dense center dense center eventually becomes the sun start to condense b/c of gravity leads to planets October 12, 2016

2 Solar System Formation different elements and compounds formed at different places w/in the disk b/c of temperature differences these particles of elements & compounds combine to form larger objects called planetismals planetismals grew larger into planets first outer planet to form was Jupiter inner planets formed by merging planetismals initially no satellites for inner planets Rotation versus Revolution Rotation the time it takes a planet to make a complete circle on its own axis. (Equal to one day on that planet) Revolution the time it takes a planet to circle the sun completely. (equal to one year on that planet)

3 The Terrestrial Planets (similar to Earth) Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars close to the size of earth have solid, rocky surfaces And now... a recitation

4 Mercury Mercury rocky, almost no atmosphere moves around the sun faster than all other planets. Year = 88 days. No weather. Has planetwide system of cliffs called scarps. Day = 59 Earth days. Temp. range 427 C to 173 C. Gravity greater than our moon. Has extensive Fe & Ni core. Has a molten zone in its interior. Venus Venus Earth s sister planet Atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and mostly thick cloud cover. If it rained it would be sulfuric acid. Has the greenhouse effect. Venus year = 224 Earth days. 1 Venus day = 243 Earth days. Size, density, and internal composition similar to Earth...has a liquid core. Winds 350 km/hr. Always stormy. Deep canyons, vast plains. Mountains as tall as those on Earth. Retrograde motion (sun rises in west ) rotates clockwise...probably caused by a collision with another body.

5 Earth A year on Earth is exactly days. This is the reason for a leap year every four years. Seasons are caused by the tilt of the Earth on its own axis. When the N hemisphere is tilted toward the sun it is summer for us; when the S hemisphere is tilted toward the sun it is their summer. Axial tilt is 23.5 degrees. Rotations wobble (precession); 1 cycle is 26,000 yrs.; caused by the moon s gravitational pull on earth; the sun plays a lesser part. Nearly circular orbit allows water to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on planet.

6 Mars Mars Red in color due to Fe content Has two tiny moons, Phobos and Deimos (captured asteroids) meaning fear and panic. Has an enormous dormant volcano named Olympus Mons (3 times size of Mt. Everest). Martian Day = 24 hours, 37 minutes. Martian Year = 1.88 Earth years. Windstorms that are up to 200 km/hr. Dust from these storms cause sky to look pink. Core is Fe & Ni & some S; 1200 to 2400km from the center of planet. Core is solid. Likely had surface water in the distance past. Other surface features include dried river & lake beds suggest water was once on Mars NOW FOR THE OUTER PLANETS!

7 The Gas Giant Planets composed of fluids (gaseous or liquid) made of lightweight elements ( H, He, C, N, O) cold at surface Jupiter largest planet; 5th from the sun 11x larger than earth makes up 70% of all planetary matter in solar system has a banded appearance electric current flows w/in the liquid metallic hydrogen generates magnetic field has earth size solid core made of heavier elements rotation is 10 hours (shortest day in solar system) has the Great Red Spot (been around for over 300 years) has more than 16 moons and has rings Saturn Saturn made mostly of hydrogen and helium. has ammonia ice near top of its clouds. 6th planet from sun and 2nd largest has a density lower than water (would float in bathtub) rotates rapidly and has banded appearance also small, solid core creating magnetic field; magnetic field is aligned w/ its rotational axis has 7 major rings comprised of pieces of rock and ice; has 47 known moons giant one named Titan. May have methane (gas, liquid, and solid ice ) similar to water on earth.

8 Uranus Uranus discovered accidentally in 1781 few clouds; no distinct belts or zones has blue velvety appearance b/c of methane gas; also contains H & He small, solid core creating strong magnetic field rotational axis is tipped over so far that the N pole lies in its orbital plane; each pole spends 42 years in darkness and 42 years in sunlight average temp. 215 o C rings are a very dark black and hard to see has 24 known moons Neptune Neptune existence was predicted b/4 discovery; based on deviations from the motion of Uranus and the application of Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation smaller than Uranus; has similar methane atmosphere, temperatures, magnetic fields, interiors, and particle rings has banded appearance; has clouds; has active weather system has the Great Dark Spot (storm) similar to Jupiter s Red Spot has 8 moons and 6 rings

9 ` Pluto Pluto discovered in 1930; made of ½ ice and ½ rock 9 th planet until 2006; now classified as a dwarf planet doesn t have properties of gas planets either while at perihelion Pluto is closer to the sun than Neptune rotational axis is tipped so far over that the N pole actually points S of its orbital plane theory has it that it could have possibly been a moon of Neptune or is related to a comet Pluto's Orbit

10 Meteors and Asteroids Asteroids leftovers from the formation of the solar system range in size from 2km to about 1000km interplanetary material falls toward earth and enters the atmosphere is a meteoroid when it burns up in the atmosphere producing a streak of light called a meteor when it hits the ground it is called a meteorite Comets small, icy bodies w/ highly eccentric orbits around the sun made of ice and rock consists of a coma,the nucleus, and the tail tail always points away from the sun b/c of particles and ions coming from the sun and pressure of radiation from the sun

11 Comets Comet West, 1975 Comet Hartley 2, taken by NASA on November 4, 2010, by Deep Impact spacecraft Comet Tempel 1, taken by Deep Impact on July 4th, 2005 More About Comets Kuiper belt and Oort cloud are two clusters of comets Kuiper belt is close to Pluto Oort cloud is more than 100,000AU from the sun comets that repeatedly orbit into the inner solar system are known as periodic comets. Example Halley s Comet when earth intersects a cometary orbit earth experiences a meteor shower where particles from the comet burn up in the atmosphere

12 Asteroid Belt The asteroid belt is located between Mars and Jupiter. Meteoroid chunk of metal/stone that orbits the sun. (millions enter our atmosphere daily) Meteor streak of light that is produced by a burning meteoroid. Meteorite a meteor that strikes the Earth s surface. Review 1. What keeps our solar system together? 2. What force keeps planets in motion? 3. What are the four inner planets? 4. What are the five outer planets? 5. Which is the sister planet to the earth?

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