Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian

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1 Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following table shows the four major categories of ingredient that were present in the solar nebula and from which planets are made. Note that these categories are abbreviated in Figure 1 as H, He for hydrogen and helium gas, and H compounds for hydrogen compounds.

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3 ANSWER Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen, Saturn is made mostly of helium, Uranus is made mostly of hydrogen compounds, and Neptune is made mostly of rock. Jupiter is made mostly of hydrogen and helium, while the other three jovian planets are made mostly of hydrogen compounds. Jupiter and Saturn have compositions that are fairly different from the compositions of Uranus and Neptune. All four planets have essentially the same composition. Correct Jupiter and Saturn are made mostly of hydrogen and helium, while Uranus and Neptune are primarily made of hydrogen compounds such as water (H 2O), methane (CH 4), and ammonia (NH 3). Part B Look at the densities of the jovian planets given in Figure 1. Which of the following statements best describes

4 Process of Science Tidal Heating

5 Learning Goal To understand how we use our theory of gravity and tidal heating to explain observable characteristics of the Galilean moons of Jupiter. Introduction. Explore the Interactive Figure before answering the questions. Be sure to note that the tidal stretching of Io is greatly exaggerated in the figure, and Jupiter and the moons are not drawn to scale. Part A Io experiences tidal heating primarily because.

6 Sorting Task Moons of Jupiter Part A Listed following are some of the distinguishing geological characteristics of the moons orbiting Jupiter. Match each characteristic to the appropriate moon. Hint A.1 What Jupiter's moons look like

7 Hint A.2 How does tidal heating affect these moons? The moon that experiences the most tidal heating is.

8 ANSWER Io Europa Ganymede Correct Remember that tidal heating makes Io quite hot inside. Use this fact to help you with the sorting task. Also remember that Europa has the second-most tidal heating of these three moons.

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10 Part A Saturn s rings are composed of. ANSWER gas from the early solar system a series of solid concentric circles lots of individual particles of ice and rock parts of Saturn s upper atmosphere being vented into space Correct Although Saturn s rings appear solid when viewed from Earth, they are actually made of countless icy particles ranging in size from dust grains to small boulders. Part B

11 Multiple Choice Question 15 Part A The belts and zones of Jupiter are ANSWER cyclonic and anticyclonic storms. alternating bands of rising and falling air at different latitudes. alternating regions of charged particles in Jupiter's magnetic field. names for different cloud layers on Jupiter.

12 Correct Multiple Choice Question 13 Part A Why do the jovian planet interiors differ? ANSWER Accretion took longer further from the Sun, so the more distant planets formed their

13 The solar heating is less for the more distant planets than the closer planets. The more distant planets had longer to form than the closer planets, since the solar nebula lasted longer at greater distances from the Sun. The more distant planets formed in a cooler region of the solar nebula and therefore contain a greater proportion of ices than the closer jovian planets. They differ due to giant impacts at the late stages of planet formation. Correct

14 Multiple Choice Question 19 Part A Why are there no impact craters on the surface of Io? ANSWER Io's thick atmosphere obscures the view of the craters. It is too small to have been bombarded by planetesimals in the early solar system. Any craters that existed have been eroded through the strong winds on Io's surface. Jupiter's strong gravity attracted the planetesimals more strongly than Io and thus none landed on its surface.

15 Io did have impact craters but they have all been buried in lava flows. Correct Multiple Choice Question 21 Part A What causes synchronous rotation?

16 ANSWER A massive planet exerts a tidal force on a moon that causes the moon to align itself such that its tidal bulges always point toward and away from the planet. Most jovian moons were formed out of their planet's nebula with the same rotational period as their parent planet. A massive planet exerts a tidal force on a moon that causes the moon to obtain the same rotational period as its parent planet. Most jovian moons were formed out of their planet's nebula with the same orbital period. Correct

17 Multiple Choice Question 23 Part A What mechanism is most responsible for generating the internal heat of Io that drives the volcanic activity? ANSWER tidal heating differentiation radioactive decay bombardment

18 accretion Correct Multiple Choice Question 25 Part A Which moon has the most substantial atmosphere?

19 ANSWER Ganymede Europa Io Titan Mimas Correct

20 Multiple Choice Question 30 Part A Why do astronomers believe Triton may have been a planet that was captured by Neptune? ANSWER It has an atmosphere and a measurable greenhouse effect. It undergoes seasonal changes. It is colder than any other moon or planet. It orbits Neptune in the opposite direction of Neptune's rotation.

21 It is too large to have been formed in the jovian nebula that formed Neptune. Correct Multiple Choice Question 32 Part A Why are Saturn's rings so thin?

22 ANSWER The "gap" moons shepherd the particles and maintain its thin profile. Saturn's gravity prevents particles from migrating upwards out of the rings. Solar radiation pressure keeps particles pressed into the rings. The current thinness is a short-lived phenomenon that is special to this time. Any particle in the ring with an orbital tilt would collide with other ring particles, flattening its orbit. Correct

23 Ranking Task Distances of Meteorites, Comets, and Asteroids

24 Part A Listed following are several objects in the solar system. Rank these objects from left to right based on their distance from the Sun, from closest to farthest. Hint A.1 What are Trojan asteroids? Trojan asteroids are. ANSWER dark-colored asteroids found in the main asteroid belt asteroids that cross Earth's orbit asteroids that share Jupiter's orbit of the Sun Correct Because the Trojan asteroids share Jupiter's orbit of the Sun, they are the same distance from the Sun as

25 Hint B.1 How Is the period of an object s orbit related to its distance from the Sun? According to Kepler s third law, an object that is farther from the Sun (larger semimajor axis) has. ANSWER a longer orbital period than an object closer to the Sun a shorter orbital period than an object closer to the Sun the same orbital period as an object closer to the Sun Correct Use this fact with your answer to Part A, and you should be able to complete Part B successfully.

26 Part C Listed following are several objects in the solar system. Rank these objects from left to right based on the distance from the Sun at which they are presumed to have formed, from nearest to farthest. Hint C.1 Where did Oort cloud comets form? The comets of the Oort cloud are thought to have formed.

27 ANSWER in the region where they are now located, far from the Sun in the same region as the Kuiper belt in the same region as the jovian planets Correct After forming among the jovian planets, the Oort cloud objects were "kicked out" to their current orbits by gravitational encounters with the large planets. In contrast, the asteroid belt objects and Kuiper belt objects are thought to remain in the region where they formed.

28 Ranking Task Understanding Comet Tails Part A The following figures show four positions (1-4) of a comet during its orbit of the Sun. Also shown is the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. Rank the positions of the comet from left to right based on the size of its tail, from shortest to longest. (Not to scale; tails not shown.)

29 Hint A.1 What determines tail length? The length of a comet s tail is determined primarily by. ANSWER how long it has been since the comet was at aphelion the comet's distance from the Sun whether the comet is approaching the Sun or moving away from the Sun Correct

30 With this fact in mind, you should now be able to complete Part A successfully. Sorting Task Comets, Meteors, and Asteroids Part A

31 Listed following are some distinguishing characteristics of comets, meteors, and asteroids. Match these to the appropriate category of objects. Hint A.1 Where is the asteroid belt located? The asteroid belt is located. ANSWER between Mars and Jupiter from about the orbit of Neptune to about twice Neptune s distance from the Sun in a spherical region far beyond the orbit of Pluto

32 Correct Now, remember that Mars is a little less than 2 AU from the Sun and Jupiter is about 5 AU from the Sun. Use this fact to sort at least one item correctly. Hint A.2 What are the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud? The Kuiper belt and Oort cloud can be described as. ANSWER regions in which we find asteroids

33 regions from which comets enter the inner solar system large groups of meteors Correct The existence of both the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud was both inferred from studies of comet orbits; these regions are the places the comets come from. Hint A.3 Where can you see a meteor?

34 Meteors can be viewed only. ANSWER on terrestrial planets on worlds with atmospheres in space Correct Meteors are phenomena that occur within an atmosphere. Use this fact to correctly sort the items that go with meteors.

35 Multiple Choice Question 5 Part A Why do asteroids and comets differ in composition? ANSWER Asteroids and comets formed at different times.

36 Asteroids formed inside the frost line, while comets formed outside. Comets are much larger than asteroids. Asteroids are much larger than comets. Comets formed from the jovian nebula, while asteroids did not. Correct

37 Multiple Choice Question 3 Part A A rocky leftover planetesimal orbiting the Sun is ANSWER a comet. a meteorite. an asteroid. a meteor.

38 possibly any of the above Correct Multiple Choice Question 8 Part A Which is closest to the average distance between asteroids in the asteroid belt?

39 ANSWER 10 million km 10 thousand km 100 thousand km 1 thousand km 1 million km Correct

40 Multiple Choice Question 9 Part A The combined mass of all the asteroids in the asteroid belt is ANSWER more than that of all the planets combined. about the same as that of Jupiter. about twice that of Earth. about the same as that of Earth.

41 less than that of any terrestrial planet. Correct Multiple Choice Question 29 Part A What part of a comet points most directly away from the Sun?

42 ANSWER the dust tail the jets of gas the nucleus the coma the plasma tail Correct

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