1/13/16. Solar System Formation

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1 Solar System Formation 1

2 Your Parents Solar System 21 st Century Solar System 2

3 The 21 st Century Solar System Sun Terrestrial Planets Asteroid Belt Jovian Planets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud The Solar System: List of Ingredients Ingredient Percent of total mass Sun Jupiter Other planets Everything else 99.8% 0.1% 0.05% 0.05% 3

4 The Sun A middle-aged, average star: Mostly Hydrogen & Helium 99.8% of the Solar System ~4.6 billion years old Shines because it is hot: Surface Temp ~6000 C Mostly Visible, UV & IR light Kept hot by nuclear fusion in its core: Builds Helium from Hydrogen fusion. Will shine for ~12 billion years The Sun dominates the Solar System 4

5 Terrestrial Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth & Mars Earth-Like Rocky Planets Largest is Earth Only in the inner solar system (0.4 to 1.5 AU) Rocky Planets: Solid Surfaces Mostly Silicates and Iron High Density: (rock & metal) Earth, Venus, & Mars have atmospheres The Terrestrial Planets Mercury (0.055 M ) Venus (0.82 M ) Earth (1 M ) Mars (0.11 M ) 5

6 The Jovian Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune Largest Planets: at least 15 times mass of Earth. Only in the outer solar system (5 to 30 AU) No solid surfaces (mostly atmosphere) Low density Gas Giants: (Jupiter & Saturn) Thick H/He atmosphere, liquid hydrogen mantle, ice core Ice Giants: (Uranus & Neptune) Ice/rock core & mantle, thin H/He atmosphere The Jovian Planets Jupiter (318 M ) Saturn (95 M ) Uranus (15 M ) Neptune (17 M ) 6

7 Dwarf Planets Defined by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) in 2006 Dwarf Planets: Ceres: first of the Asteroids, discovered in 1801 Pluto: trans-neptunian object discovered in 1930 Eris: trans-neptunian object discovered in 2005 Haumea (trans-neptunian, suspected) Makemake (trans-neptunian, suspected) 7

8 Dwarf Planets The Giant Moons Moon: any natural satellite orbiting a planet or dwarf planet Giant Moons: Earth: The Moon (Luna) Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, & Callisto Saturn: Titan Neptune: Triton Many smaller moons, both rocky & icy. Only Mercury & Venus have no moons. 8

9 The Giant Moons Mercury Mimas Iapetus Io Ariel Umbriel Pallas Proteus Moon Miranda Hygeia Europa Ganymede Tethys Dione Titan Triton Vesta Rhea Titania Callisto Ceres Enceladus Oberon Pluto Charon 9

10 1/13/16 Kuiper Belt Class of icy bodies orbiting beyond Neptune. Found only in the outer Solar System (>30AU) Densities of 1.2 to 2 g/cc (mostly ices) Examples: Pluto & Eris (icy dwarf planets) Kuiper Belt Objects (30-50AU) Charon, Pluto s large moon Sedna & Quaor: distant large icy bodies Kuiper Belt 10

11 Oort Cloud Spherical cloud of comets. Extends out to almost 50,000 AU (1 light-year) May contain trillions of comets The outer edge is the farthest reach of the Sun s gravitational pull. There are no confirmed observations its existence is theoretical only. Oort Cloud 11

12 The Leftovers (small bodies) Asteroids: Made of rock & metal (density 2-3 g/cc) Sizes: Few 100km to large boulders Most are found in the Main Belt ( AU) Meteoroids: Bits of rock and metal Sizes: grains of sand to boulders Comets: Composite rock & ice dirty snowballs Longs tails of gas & dust are swept off them when they pass near the Sun. Differences Meteoroid A PARTICLE from an asteroid or comet orbiting the sun Meteor Observed as it burns up in Earth s atmosphere: Called a shooting star Meteorite: Survives its passage through the Earth s atmosphere and impacts Earth s surface 12

13 13

14 More Differences Asteroid Rocky body orbiting the sun Comet Ice & dust hear the sun, a tail of gas and particles pointing away from the sun 14

15 Asteroids 253 Mathilde 951 Gaspra 243 Ida Meteor burning up in the atmosphere. 15

16 Comet P/Halley Comet P/Wilt 16

17 Comparing Sizes of Stars & Planets 17

18 Is Pluto a Planet? What to consider? Size? Shape? Orbit? What is it made of? IAU Definition of a Planet In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) came up with the following definition of a planet: orbits the Sun has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium shape (i.e., it is spherical), has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, is not a satellite 18

19 IAU Definition of a Dwarf Planet In 2006, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) came up with the following definition of a dwarf planet: orbits the Sun has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium shape (i.e., it is spherical), has not cleared the neighborhood around its orbit, is not a satellite 19

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