Lesson 3 The Outer Planets

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1 Lesson 3 Student Labs and Activities Page Launch Lab 44 Content Vocabulary 45 Lesson Outline 46 MiniLab 48 Content Practice A 49 Content Practice B 50 Language Arts Support 51 Math Skills 53 School to Home 54 Key Concept Builders 55 Enrichment 59 Challenge 60 The Solar System 43

2 Launch Lab LESSON 3: 15 minutes How do we see distant objects in the solar system? Some of the outer planets were discovered hundreds of years ago. Why weren t all planets discovered? Object Distance from Sun (cm) Sun 0 Jupiter 39 Saturn 71 Uranus 143 Neptune 295 Procedure 1. Read and complete a lab safety form. 2. Use a meterstick, masking tape, and the data table to mark and label the position of each object on the tape on the floor along a straight line. 3. Shine a flashlight from the Sun horizontally along the tape. Think About This 4. Have a partner hold a page of your textbook in the flashlight beam at each planet location. Record your observations in your Science Journal. 1. What happens to the image of the page as you move away from the flashlight? 2. Key Concept Why do you think it is more difficult to observe the outer planets than the inner planets? 44 The Solar System

3 Content Vocabulary LESSON 3 Directions: In this word search puzzle, find and circle the five terms listed below. Then on each line, write the term that correctly completes each sentence. Galilean moons orbit probe rotation Titan Y G B G Z D F D R H I D U T A D A Z A O U P T T E Q G I W U I L I A X N H V R X J T L N E D I H Z S Z R H U X A X W A K B L D M O H Q R G N U T N M J E E E B F V X B T W F I J C L C A V N B A G B A Q A H Q Y U A N S G Q R L T G Q U P R O B E M N Z Z U I C P M B G A U V I O T R Y B X X Z N T Y P B Q L O W X R O T A T I O N G Z Z O N K O P P N Y N R H C R E V O S 1. Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto are called the. 2. Saturn s largest moon,, is bigger than the planet Mercury. 3. Like Jupiter, Saturn has a rapid and horizontal bands of clouds. 4. Jupiter takes almost 12 years to complete one. 5. Scientists use a to examine planets and moons in the solar system. The Solar System 45

4 Lesson Outline LESSON 3 A. The Gas Giants 1. The outer planets are made of materials that are usually on Earth. 2. Gravitational forces produced by the large sizes of these planets change gases B. Jupiter into. 1. is the largest planet in the solar system. a. Although it takes 12 years to revolve around the Sun, Jupiter faster than any other planet. b. Jupiter has a system of around it. 2. Jupiter s atmosphere contains helium but is mostly made up of. a. Jupiter s rotation stretches its clouds into colorful. b. The on Jupiter is a storm that has lasted more than 300 years. 3. Jupiter s entire structure is made up of about 80 percent hydrogen, about 20 percent, and small amounts of other materials. 4. Jupiter has a solid core that is surrounded by. 5. The four largest moons of Jupiter are called. These are Io, C. Saturn, Ganymede, and Callisto. 1. Like Jupiter, Saturn rotates and has clouds in bands. 2. Saturn is mostly made of and helium. 3. Saturn has the largest system in the solar system. a. Saturn has bands of rings, each of which contains thousands of smaller rings. b. The rings are made mainly of particles. 4. Most of Saturn s moons are small, but one of them,, is larger than the planet Mercury. 46 The Solar System

5 Lesson Outline continued D. Uranus 1. Uranus s atmosphere contains mostly hydrogen and helium, with small amounts of. a. Beneath Uranus s atmosphere is a slushy layer of water,, and other materials. b. Uranus might have a rocky. 2. The rotational axis of Uranus is more than that of other planets. 3. Uranus has at least moons and a small ring system. E. Neptune 1. The atmosphere and interior of Neptune are similar to. 2. Neptune has at least moons and a faint ring system. The Solar System 47

6 MiniLab LESSON 3: 15 minutes How do Saturn s moons affect its rings? In this lab, sugar models Saturn s rings. How might Saturn s moons affect its rings? Procedure 1. Read and complete a lab safety form. 2. Hold two sharpened pencils with their points even and then tape them together. 3. Insert a third pencil into the hole in a record. Hold the pencil so the record is in a horizontal position. 4. Have your partner sprinkle sugar evenly over the surface of the record. Hold the taped pencils vertically over the record so that the tips rest in the record s grooves. 5. Slowly turn the record. Record what happens to the sugar below. Data and Observations Analyze and Conclude 1. Compare and Contrast What feature of Saturn s rings do the pencils model? 2. Infer What do you think causes the spaces between the rings of Saturn? 3. Key Concept What would have to be true for a moon to interact in this way with Saturn s rings? 48 The Solar System

7 Content Practice A LESSON 3 Directions: Use your textbook, including Figure 12, to describe each planet in the space provided. Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune The Solar System 49

8 Content Practice B LESSON 3 Directions: Answer each question on the lines provided. 1. What do the outer planets have in common? 2. Which outer planets have the shortest period of revolution and which have the longest? 3. How does the rotation of Uranus differ from the rotation of the other outer planets? 4. What is particularly significant about Saturn s rings? 5. What is important to remember about the Great Red Spot on Jupiter? 6. What causes the layers of colorful bands of clouds on Jupiter? 50 The Solar System

9 Language Arts Support LESSON 3 Writing a Compare-and-Contrast Essay Preparation and Taking Notes A compare-and-contrast essay is a form of expository writing that presents the similarities and differences between two places, things, ideas, or phenomena. This kind of essay includes: a general statement about two or more things that are alike in certain ways and different in other ways; specific details that develop each point of similarity or difference; a discussion of why the similarities and differences are important or significant; a clear organizational structure that helps the reader follow the essay and stay interested in it. Before you draft your essay, gather facts, descriptions, and examples that you can use to highlight similarities and differences. Organize your information and details in a graphic organizer, such as a Venn diagram. In addition to helping you take notes, a graphic organizer can help you draw conclusions about similarities and differences. Directions: Use the Venn diagram to respond to each statement. Earth average temperature 15 C period of rotation: 24 hours Both diameter: approximately 12,000 km internal structure includes core, mantle, and crust 1. Write a statement explaining the similarities between the two planets. 2. Write a statement explaining the differences between the two planets. Venus average temperature 460 C period of rotation: 244 days The Solar System 51

10 Language Arts Support LESSON 3 Learning the Skill Choose an organizational structure listed below to write your compare-and-contrast essay. Use the information you gathered in your Venn diagram to guide you. Block Method First, present all the details about one subject. Then present all the details about the next subject. Choose this method when you want to cover many types of details. Also use this method when you want to compare and contrast two or more topics. For example, your first paragraph should mention main points about the first topic, your second paragraph should mention main points about a different topic, and so on. Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 Inner planets: small, rocky planets Outer planets: large, gaseous planets Point-by-Point Method In your first paragraph, discuss one feature about both subjects. Then in the next paragraph, present the information about another feature of both subjects. Paragraph 1 Composition of each inner and outer planet After choosing one of these organizational methods, you can write your compare-andcontrast essay. Remember that your essay needs an introduction that states a main idea about your subject. For example: The planets in the solar system can be divided into two categories based on their composition, number of moons, and average density. Applying the Skill Paragraph 2 Paragraph 3 Number of moons in each inner and outer planet Average density of each inner and outer planet Directions: Read Lessons 2 and 3 in your textbook. On a separate sheet of paper, organize details about two planets other than Earth and Venus using the block method or point-by-point method. Then write a brief compareand-contrast essay on the topic. 52 The Solar System

11 Math Skills LESSON 3 Ratios A ratio is a comparison of two numbers and can be written as a fraction. For example, Max s house is 0.4 miles away from school and Mia s house is 0.8 miles away. The ratio of the distances is Simplify by dividing 0.8 by 0.4 to get = 2 1 Mia s house is 2 times farther from school than Max s house. Distances in the solar system can be compared using astronomical units (AU). One AU is about 150 million kilometers. Jupiter is 5.20 AU from the Sun, and Saturn is 9.58 AU from the Sun. How many times farther from the Sun is Saturn than Jupiter? Step 1 Write the distances as a ratio, with the greater number as the numerator Step 2 Divide to simplify = 1.84 Saturn is 1.84 times farther from the Sun than Jupiter is. Practice 1. How many times farther from the Sun is Neptune (distance = AU) than Saturn (distance = 9.58 AU)? 2. How many times farther from the Sun is Neptune (distance = AU) than Uranus (distance = AU)? 3. How many times farther from the Sun is Uranus (distance = AU) than Jupiter (distance = 5.20 AU)? 4. How many times farther from Earth is Jupiter (distance = 629,000,000 km) than Mercury (distance = 92,000,000 km)? The Solar System 53

12 School to Home LESSON 3 Directions: Use your textbook to answer each question. 1. The gravitational force of each of the outer planets puts a great deal of pressure on the planet s atmosphere. What is the result of this pressure on the structure of outer planets? 2. Jupiter s mass is more than double the mass of all the other planets combined. How does the size of Jupiter compare to the size of Earth? 3. The rings around Saturn are the largest and most complex in the solar system. Each of the seven rings is made of narrower ringlets. How do scientists believe the rings were formed? 4. Uranus and Neptune are the seventh and eighth planets in our solar system. Both have narrow rings and many moons. How are the surfaces and structures of the two planets similar? 54 The Solar System

13 Key Concept Builder LESSON 3 Key Concept How are the outer planets similar? Directions: Complete the compare-and-contrast chart by writing terms from the list in the correct spaces. diameter of planet distance from the Sun gases change to liquid strong gravitational force hydrogen and helium gases lack a solid surface period of revolution mainly liquid interiors mass number of moons size of rings small solid core temperature tilt of rotation period of rotation type of rings How are the outer planets similar? How are the outer planets different? The Solar System 55

14 Key Concept Builder LESSON 3 Key Concept How are the outer planets similar? Directions: Complete each chart by writing the correct information after each bullet. Jupiter Moons Names of the four largest Galilean moons: Galilean moons larger than Earth s moon: Rings Description of ring system: Origin of ring system: Composition of moons: Saturn Moons Rings Five largest moons: Composition of moons: Moon with dense atmosphere: Moon that is larger than planet Mercury: Moons Two largest moons: Surface of Titania: Moons Largest moon: Composition of Triton: Size of rings: Number of bands: Width of main ring system: Thickness of main ring system: Origin of rings: Uranus Rings Description of ring system: Neptune Rings Description of ring system: Surface of Triton: 56 The Solar System

15 Key Concept Builder LESSON 3 Key Concept What are the outer planets made of? Directions: Answer each question in the space provided. Planet Size Atmosphere Structure Jupiter 1. What is Jupiter s mass? 2. What gases make up Jupiter s atmosphere? 4. What happens at about 1,000 km below the cloud layer? 3. What is the Great Red Spot? 5. What do scientists suspect the core might be made of? Saturn 6. What is Saturn s mass? 7. What gases make up Saturn s atmosphere? 9. In what ways is Saturn like Jupiter? 8. How thick is the atmosphere? Uranus Neptune 10. What is the mass of Uranus? 14. What is the mass of Neptune? 11. What gases make up the atmosphere of Uranus? 15. What gases make up Neptune s atmosphere? 16. What are the dark circular areas? 12. What lies below the atmosphere of Uranus? 13. What do scientists think about the core? 17. What is the composition of the interior? 18. What is the composition of the core? The Solar System 57

16 Key Concept Builder LESSON 3 Key Concept What are the outer planets made of? Directions: Answer each question by writing the correct outer planet or planets on the lines provided. Jupiter Neptune Saturn Uranus 1. Which planets have a small amount of methane in their atmospheres? 2. Which planets have atmospheres composed of hydrogen and helium gases? 3. Which planet has an atmosphere of 90 percent hydrogen? 4. Which planets have rings? 5. Which planet has a tilted axis of rotation? 6. Which planet s interior is most like the one on Uranus? 7. Which planet has the largest and most complex ring system? 8. Which planets have interiors made of partially frozen water and ammonia? 9. Which planet s surface is a thick, slushy layer of water, ammonia, and other materials? 10. Which planet takes 165 years to orbit the Sun? 11. Which planet has a core that might be the size of Earth and ten times its mass? 12. Which planet has rings, each containing thousands of narrower ringlets? 13. Which outer planets have periods of rotation that are shorter than Earth s? 58 The Solar System

17 Enrichment LESSON 3 The Jovian Planets According to the nebular hypothesis, the solar system formed from a rotating cloud of gas and dust a solar nebula that surrounded the newly formed Sun. Solid bits of matter began to collide and clump together. The rotating nebular disk flattened, and the clumps began to form planets. Planet Formation In the inner regions of the forming solar system near the Sun, the temperatures were so high that only the metals and silicate materials could clump together. It was too hot for gases such as carbon dioxide and methane to accumulate and too hot for ice to form. Thus the inner planets formed from materials that had high melting points. Much more material in the clumping solar nebula would also become planets. Out in the cold, distant reaches of the solar Applying Critical-Thinking Skills Directions: Respond to each statement. nebula, ices of water and other substances could form. These materials began to accrete, or clump together, to form the outer planets. Eventually, these planets became so massive that their gravity could hold light gases, such as helium and hydrogen. Jovian Characteristics The massive outer planets are now called the Jovian (Jupiterlike) planets. A Jovian planet has a core of solid iron and rock, but the rest of the entire planet is made of ices and gases. If you could travel to these planets, there would be no solid ground to stand on. It has been hypothesized that Jupiter is made mostly of the same materials as the Sun, and that if it had been 100 times larger and more massive, it would have become another sun. Jupiter is the largest of all the planets. 1. Describe how the outer planets differ in composition from the inner planets. 2. Interpret the following statement: Humans will never set foot on any of the outer planets. Justify your answer. 3. Infer how Jupiter could have become another sun if it had been larger. The Solar System 59

18 Challenge LESSON 3 Moons of the Outer Planets Jupiter has at least 63 moons, some of which don t have names yet. The moons of the outer planets range in diameter from 2 km to 5,268 km. The largest moon in the solar system is Jupiter s Ganymede, which is larger than the planet Mercury. Many moons of the outer planets are small and have irregular shapes and unusual orbits. Some scientists believe that these are captured asteroids, meaning the gravity of the planet pulled the object into its orbit. Captured asteroids are natural satellites, but they did not form by accretion as regular spherical moons probably did. Moons of the Outer Planets Planet Number of Moons Largest Moons Jupiter at least 63 Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto Saturn at least 60 Titan, Rhea, Iapetus, Dione Uranus at least 27 Titania, Oberon, Umbriel, Ariel Neptune at least 13 Triton, Proteus, Nereid, Naiad Moon Sizes Ganymede is the solar system s largest moon, with a diameter of 5,268 km. These four moons are planet-sized. Titan is planet-sized at 5,150 km in diameter. Titania is 1,578 km in diameter, while tiny Cordelia is 26 km in diameter. Neptune s moon Triton is 2,700 km in diameter. 1. Select the largest moon each planet has. In the space below, draw the moons in order of size from largest to smallest. Create a scale so you can keep your drawings proportional. Be sure to show your scale. 2. Develop an argument in a brief statement as to how you would reclassify a captured asteroid from a moon to another category of natural satellite. 60 The Solar System

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