Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit Complete the following table with information about the sun:

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1 Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit 2 Name: 2-1 The sun 1. Complete the following table with information about the sun: a. Mass compare to the Earth: b. Temperature of the gases: c. The light and heat due to: d. It is about : years old e. The sun will last another: 2. For the following diagram of the sun a. Label the three layers of the sun in the first set of boxes b. List some properties of each layer 3. With respect to sunspots, explain a. Where on the sun are they found? b. What causes them? c. The relationship between sunspots and faculae ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 1 of 8

2 4. Plasma on the sun is responsible for spectacular features on the sun. Complete this table with the necessary information about them. Name Description Blast of plasma that affects technologies. Solar Wind of plasma that collapses on itself. 2-2 Solar System: Features and Origins 5. Fill in the blanks of the following summary with words supplied. 3 rd Law gravity solar system period orbit Sir Isaac Newton s distance force 2 nd Law A is defined as a group of bodies held in by around a star. The law that govern how objects are held together is Law of Gravity which explains that gravity is a between two objects. Kepler s explains why the orbiting object must move faster, and the explains the relations between the (which is the time it takes to orbit the star) and 6. According to the Nebular Hypothesis, why are the lighter elements concentrated in the outer planets. ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 2 of 8

3 7. The following is a brief summary of the formation of the solar system based on The Nebular Hypothesis (NH). Put the statements between the Start and End in the correct order. Start A giant nebula exist in space. As the contraction continues a proto-star will form at the center which eventually becomes the star in the solar system The contraction creates kinetic energy within the cloud It begins to contract under its own gravity. The entire nebula will flatten into a disk as a result and small back currents or eddies will form in the disk. The cloud begins to heat up, flatten and to spin or rotate. End Material builds up or accretes in eddies to form planets. 8. This is a diagram of a very basic solar system showing Object 2 orbiting Object 1. Write Gravity next to the equation that show s Newton s Law of Gravity Draw an arrow from m1 in the equation to the object representing the sun. Draw an arrow from m2 in the equation to the planet d, representing distance, appears in both equations. Draw an arrow from each d to the dash line ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 3 of 8

4 Next to G in the equation, write the value it represents. Circle the position when object 2 is traveling the fastest. What does the dashline between the two object represent in both equations? What does the T in the bottom equation represent? 9. Calculate the period of Mars if it is 1.45 AU from the sun. 10. What is the orbital radius (in AU) of Neptune if its period is Earth years? 11. Calculate the force of gravity between the Earth (mass = 5.98 x kg) and the sun (mass = 1.99 x kg) if the Earth Sun distance is 1.5 x m 12. If the distance between Earth and the sun were doubled what would be the force of gravity between them, use your answer from #11 to find the answer to this question. 13. Where are the Asteriod Belt, Oort Cloud, and Kuiper Belt. What can be found in them? 14. If Jupiter was not there, there could be more terrestrial planets. Explain how this statement could be true. ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 4 of 8

5 2-3 Terrestrials 15. Name the four Terrestrials in order from the Sun. 16. Circle the word or phrase that will make the statement true about Terrestrials. a) The Terrestrials have (rocky / gaseous) surfaces. b) They have (many / few) moons. c) Their diameters are (small / large). d) Surface (have / lack) impact craters. e) Made of (high / small) density elements. 17. The following sets of statements describe one of the four Terrestrials planets. Use the following code to identify which of the four Terrestrial planets to identify which planet it describes. M (Mercury) V (Venus) E (Earth) F (Mars) a) Has the highest mountain in the Solar System called Olympus Mons b) Is slightly smaller than Earth c) Called the morning and evening stars, just like Venus d) Surrounded by clouds containing sulfuric acid e) Moons are called Phobos and Diemos which are captured asteroids f) Atmosphere is made of carbon dioxide resulting in high temperature g) Has permanent polar ice caps like Earth h) Have similar densities and chemical compositions as Venus i) Polar ice made of carbon dioxide and water. j) Has a temperature range of 400C to -200C k) Mars is smaller, but has about the same land mass l) Surrounded by a very thin atmosphere m) Numerous craters are due to a lack of atmosphere n) The atmosphere is about 90 times Earths o) Have no moons, just like Venus ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 5 of 8

6 18. Explain how a planet s size and planet atmosphere determine whether its surface will be smooth or full of impact craters. 19. What is the evidence of water on Mars? 20. On this diagram label the meterorite, meteor, meteoroids. 21. In the context of meteorites, what are stones and irons? 22. Why are meteor impact craters rare on Earth? ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 6 of 8

7 2-4 Jovian Planets 23. This table contains several statement in the first column. If the statement refers to Terrestrials planets, then put T in the second column. Put J if it refers to Jovian Statement Venus, Earth, Mercury, Mars T/J Consist of low density elements like Hydrogen and Helium Thin atmospheres Have rings Have many moons Lie between the sun and Asteriod Belt Large diameters High density The Kuiper Belt is at the outer edge 24. Use the following code to identify which planet each of the statement describes. J (Jupiter) S (Saturn) N (Neptune) U (Uranus) a) Least dense of all the planets b) Radiates more energy than it receives from the Sun c) Has a Red Spot d) Composed of mostly rock and various ices. e) Density is so low that it can float on water. f) Has a blue spot in the southern hemisphere. g) Has an oval shaped hurricane about 12,000 by 25,000 km h) Rotational tilt is almost perpendicular to the sun. i) Has a storm called the Great Dark Spot j) Like Jupiter, radiates more energy than it receives k) Magnetic field is almost 60 degress off the center of rotation. l) Has many moons like Jupiter m) Has an atmosphere of methane, making the planet look blue. n) Like Jupiter its atmosphere is liquid hydrogen o) Has auroras ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 7 of 8

8 25. What are Saturn s rings composed of? 26. What is a satellite? Why are some of the moons of Jupiter called Galilean Moons? 27. Label the parts of a comet in this diagram. Use the terms: tail coma head nucleus 28. What is the composition of a comet s head? 29. How is a comet s tail formed, and what determines its direction? ES11LG-Unit 2 Page 8 of 8

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