Dwarf Planets and Other Objects

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1 Lesson 4 Dwarf Planets and Other Objects LA , SC.8.E.5.1, SC.8.E.5.3, SC.8.E.5.7, SC.8.N.3.1 Skim or scan the heading, boldfaced words, and pictures in the lesson. Identify or predict three facts you will learn from the lesson. Discuss your thoughts with a classmate. Dwarf Planet s NGSSS Check Describe the characteristics of a dwarf planet. SC.8.E.5.3 Compare and contrast a planet and a dwarf planet in the Venn diagram below. Planet Both Dwarf Planet I found this on page. I found this on page. Or ganize informatio n about dwarf plan ets. Location in solar system Composition Number of moons Dwarf Planets Describe Makemake and Haumea. Pluto Ceres Eris Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 79

2 Lesson 4 Dwarf Planets and Other Objects (continued) Asteroids Relate facts about asteroids in the ta ble below NGSSS Check Where do the orbits of most asteroids occur? SC.8.E.5.1, SC.8.E.5.3 Location Number Facts About Asteroids Description Largest (name and size) Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide Comets I found this on page. NGSSS Check Describe the characteristics of a comet. SC.8.E.5.3 I found this on page. Compare and Contrast asteroids and comets by completing the chart. Same Asteroids and Comets Different Model the structure of comets by adding two comets to the figure below. Draw one comet approaching the Sun and one comet going away from the Sun. Indicate the direction of motion with arrows. Show the comets comas and dust ta ils. 80 The Solar System

3 Lesson 4 Dwarf Planets and Other Objects (continued) I found this on page. Distinguish information about the source of comets below. The Kuiper Belt is The Oort Cloud is Meteoroids I found this on page. Analyze the differences between a meteoroid, a meteor, and a meteorite by completing the chart. Name of Body What It Is Meteoroid Meteor Meteorite Describe an impact crater and how one is formed. Which attribute is more important in classifying a solar system object, its size or its composition? Explain. Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 81

4 Review The Solar System Chapter Wrap-Up Now that you have read the chapter, think about what you have learned. Use this checklist to help you study. Complete your Foldables Chapter Project. Study this chapter in your Notebook. Study the definitions of vocabulary words. Reread the chapter, and review the charts, graphs, and illustrations. Review the Understanding Key Concepts at the end of each lesson. Look over the Chapter Review at the end of the chapter. THINK ABOUT IT! Summarize It Reread the Think About It question and the lesson Key Concepts. As telescopes and methods of observing space have improved over time, scientists have discovered evidence of planets revolving around other stars. In addition to planets, what other objects would you expect to find in those distant solar systems? What might the orbits of objects in those solar systems look like? Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide Challenge Jupiter is an enormous planet with nearly the same composition as the Sun. What if Jupiter were a star instead of a planet, giving our solar system two suns? How might that circumstance affect Jupiter s moons? How might it affect Earth and the rest of the solar system? 82 The Solar System

5 5 Earth in Space and Time Scaling down the Solar System A scale model is a physical representation of something that is much smaller or much larger. Reduced-sized scale models are made of very large things, such as the solar system. The scale used must reduce the actual size to a size reasonable for the model. Question What scale can you use to represent solar system objects? SC.8.N.1.1, SC.8.N.3.1, SC.8.E.5.1, SC.8.E.5.3 Materials 2.25-inch-wide register tape (several rolls) meterstick masking tape Safety Procedure 1. First, decide how big your solar system will be. Use the data given in the table to figure out how far apart the Sun and Neptune would be if a scale of 1 meter = 1 AU is used. Would a solar system based on that scale fit in the space you have available? 2. With your group, determine the scale that results in a model that fits the available space. Larger models are usually more accurate, so choose a scale that produces the largest model that fits in the available space. 3. Once you have decided on a scale, record the unit you have chosen in the third column of the table. Then fill in the scaled distance for each planet. Planet Distance from the Sun (AU) Mercury 0.39 Venus 0.72 Earth 1.00 Mars 1.52 Jupiter 5.20 Saturn 9.54 Uranus Neptune Distance from the Sun (Scale) Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 83

6 Big Idea Lab continued 4. On register tape, mark the positions of the objects in the solar system based on your chosen scale. Use a length of register tape that is slightly longer than the scaled distance between the Sun and Neptune. 5. Tape the ends of the register tape to a table or the floor. Mark a dot at one end of the paper to represent the Sun. Measure along the tape from the center of the dot to the location of Mercury. Mark a dot at this position and label it Mercury. Repeat this process for the remaining planets. Analyze and Conclude 6. Critique There are many objects in the solar system. These objects have different sizes, structures, and orbits. Examine your scale model of the solar system. How accurate is the model? How could the model be changed to be more accurate? Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide Lab Tips A scale is the ratio between the actual size of something and a representation of it. The distances between the planets and the Sun are average distances because planetary orbits are not perfect circles. Remember to use scientific methods. Make Observations Ask a Question Form a Hypothesis Test your Hypothesis Analyze and Conclude Communicate Results 84 The Solar System

7 Big Idea Lab continued 7. The Big Idea Pluto is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune. Based on the pattern of distance data for the planets shown in the table, approximately how far from the Sun would you expect to find Pluto? Explain your reasoning. 8. Calculate What length of register tape is needed if a scale of 30 cm = 1 AU is used for the solar system model? Communicate Your Results Compare your model with other groups in your class by taping them all side-by-side. Discuss any major differences in your models. Discuss the difficulties in making the scale models much smaller. Extension How can you build a scale model of the solar system that accurately shows both planetary diameters and distances? Describe how you would go about figuring this out. Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 85

8 Big Idea Lab Notes Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide 86 The Solar System

9 Study Guide Use Vocabulary Match each phrase with the correct vocabulary term from the chapter. 1. the time it takes an object to complete one rotation on its axis 2. the average distance from Earth to the Sun 3. the time it takes an object to travel once around the Sun 4. an increase in temperature caused by energy trapped by a planet s atmosphere 5. an inner planet 6. the four largest moons of Jupiter 7. a streak of light in Earth s atmosphere made by a glowing meteoroid Link Vocabulary and Key Concepts Use vocabulary terms from the chapter to complete the concept map below. planets examples include Venus high surface temperature caused by the 14. dwarf planets Jupiter 8. four largest moons are called 15. The Solar System contains cause streaks of light called strikes a planet or moon as a 12. and often forms on Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 87

10 Chapter 2 Review Understand Key Concepts Circle the correct answer below. 1. Which solar system object is the largest? SC.8.E.5.3 A. Jupiter C. the Sun B. Neptune D. Saturn 6. How are the terrestrial planets similar? SC.8.E Which best describes the asteroid belt? SC.8.E.5.3 A. another name for the Oort cloud B. the region where comets originate C. large chunks of gas, dust, and ice D. millions of small rocky objects A. similar densities B. similar diameters C. similar periods of rotation D. similar rocky surfaces Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide 3. Which describes a planet s speed as it orbits the Sun? SC.8.E.5.7 A. It constantly decreases. B. It constantly increases. C. It does not change. D. It increases then decreases. 4. The diagram below shows a planet s orbit around the Sun. What does the blue arrow represent? SC.8.E.5.4 A. the gravitational pull of the Sun B. the planet s orbital path C. the planet s path if Sun did not exist D. the planet s speed 5. Which describes the greenhouse effect? SC.8.E.5.7 A. effect of gravity on temperature B. energy emitted by the Sun C. energy trapped by atmosphere D. reflection of light from a planet 7. Which inner planet is the hottest? SC.8.E.5.7 A. Earth C. Mercury B. Mars D. Venus 8. The photograph on page 78 in your textbook shows how Earth appears from space. How does Earth differ from other inner planets? SC.8.E.5.7 A. Its atmosphere contains large amounts of methane. B. Its period of revolution is much greater. C. Its surface is covered by large amounts of liquid water. D. Its surface temperature is higher. 9. Which two gases make up most of the outer planets? SC.8.E.5.7 A. ammonia and helium B. ammonia and hydrogen C. hydrogen and helium D. methane and hydrogen 10. Which is true of the dwarf planets? SC.8.E.5.3 A. more massive than nearby objects B. never have moons C. orbit near the Sun D. spherically shaped 11. Which is a bright streak of light in Earth s atmosphere? SC.8.E.5.3 A. a comet C. a meteorite B. a meteor D. a meteoroid 12. Which best describes an asteroid? SC.8.E.5.3 A. icy C. round B. rocky D. wet 88 The Solar System

11 Chapter 2 Review continued Critical Thinking Use the lines below to respond to the following questions. 13. Relate changes in speed during a planet s orbit to the shape of the orbit and the gravitational pull of the Sun. SC.8.E Compare In what ways are planets and dwarf planets similar? SC.8.E Apply Like Venus, Earth s atmosphere contains carbon dioxide. What might happen on Earth if the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increases? Explain. SC.8.E Defend A classmate states that life will someday be found on Mars. Defend the statement and offer a reason why life might exist on Mars. SC.8.E.5.7 Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 89

12 Chapter 2 Review continued Critical Thinking Use the lines below to respond to the following questions. 17. Infer whether a planet with active volcanoes would have more or fewer craters than a planet without active volcanoes. Explain. SC.8.E Support Use the diagram of the asteroid belt to support the explanation of how the belt formed. SC.8.E.5.4 Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide Asteroid belt Mars Jupiter 19. Evaluate The Huygens probe transmitted data about Titan for only 90 min. In your opinion, was this worth the effort of sending the probe? SC.8.E Explain why Jupiter s moon Ganymede is not considered a dwarf planet, even though it is bigger than Mercury. SC.8.E The Solar System

13 Chapter 2 Review continued 21. Compose a pamphlet that describes how the International Astronomical Union classifies planets, dwarf planets, and small solar system objects. SC.8.E.5.7 Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 91

14 Chapter 2 Review continued Review the Big Idea 22. What kinds of objects are in the solar system? Summarize the types of space objects that make up the solar system and give at least one example of each. SC.8.E.5.3 Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide 23. The photo on page 79 in your textbook shows part of Saturn s rings and two of its moons. Describe what Saturn and its rings are made of and explain why the other two objects are moons. SC.8.E.5.3 Math Skills Use Ratios MA.6.A.3.6 Planet Diameter (% of Earth s diameter) Inner Planet Data Mass (% of Earth s mass) Average Distance from Sun (AU) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Use the table above to calculate how many times farther from the Sun Mars is compared to Mercury. 25. Calculate how much greater Venus s mass is compared to Mercury s mass. 92 The Solar System

15 Science Benchmark Practice Mark your answer in the answer bubbles below each question. Multiple Choice 1 Which is a terrestrial planet? SC.8.E.5.3 Use the diagram of Saturn below to answer questions 5 and 6. A Ceres B Neptune 72,000 km Solid core C Pluto D Venus 2 An astronomical unit (AU) is the average distance SC.8.E.5.1 F between Earth and the Moon. G from Earth to the Sun. H to the nearest star in the galaxy. I to the edge of the solar system. 3 Which is NOT a characteristic of ALL planets? SC.8.E.5.3 A exceed the total mass of nearby objects B have a nearly spherical shape C have one or more moons D make an elliptical orbit around the Sun Use the diagram below to answer question 4. Sun 4 Which object in the solar system is marked by an X in the diagram? SC.8.E.5.3 F asteroid G meteoroid H dwarf planet I outer planet X 5 The thick inner layer marked X in the diagram above is made of which material? SC.8.E.5.7 A carbon dioxide B gaseous helium C liquid hydrogen D molten rock 6 In the diagram, Saturn s rings are shown to be 72,000 km in width. Approximately how thick are Saturn s rings? SC.8.E.5.7 F 30 m H 14,000 km G 1,000 km I 1 AU 7 Which are NOT found on Mercury s surface? SC.8.E.5.7 A high cliffs B impact craters C lava flows D sand dunes 8 What is the primary cause of the extremely high temperatures on the surface of Venus? SC.8.E.5.7 F heat rising from the mantle G lack of an atmosphere H proximity to the Sun I the greenhouse effect X Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 93

16 NGSSS for Science Benchmark Practice continued Use the diagram below to answer question What explains the motion of planets around the Sun? SC.8.E.5.4 X Mars Ceres F period of rotation G greenhouse effect H period of revolution I Law of Universal Gravitation Jupiter Use the image below to answer question In the diagram above, which region of the solar system is marked by an X? SC.8.E.5.3 Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide A the asteroid belt B the dwarf planets C the Kuiper belt D the Oort cloud 10 What is a meteorite? SC.8.E.5.7 F a surface depression formed by collision with a rock from space G a fragment of rock that strikes a planet or a moon H a mixture of ice, dust, and gas with a glowing tail I a small rocky particle that moves through space 11 What gives Mars its reddish color? SC.8.E.5.7 A ice caps of frozen carbon dioxide B lava from Olympus Mons C liquid water in gullies D soil rich in iron oxide 13 What type of object is NOT shown in this illustration of the solar system? SC.8.E.5.7 A a star B gas giants C dwarf planets D terrestrial planets 14 Why do astronomers use astronomical units? SC.8.E.5.1 F Astronomical units are easy to convert to feet and inches. G Distances between objects in the solar system are enormous. H Periods of revolution and rotation can only be compared in astronomical units. I Temperature differences on some planets in the solar system are too extreme. 94 The Solar System

17 Benchmark Mini-Assessment Chapter 2 Lesson 1 Multiple Choice Bubble the correct answer An astronomer observes a planetary object using a powerful telescope. The object appears to be in orbit around the Sun. It is rocky and has an irregular shape. What is the object? SC.8.E A asteroid B comet 1. The image above shows the inner planets. Which planet is represented by the number 2? SC.8.E.5.7 C meteor D planet A Earth B Mars C Mercury D Venus 2. Nuclear fusion, a process inside the Sun, produces an enormous amount of SC.8.E.5.5 F energy. G water. H carbon dioxide. I carbon monoxide The diagram above shows the outer planets. Which planet is represented by the number 3? SC.8.E.5.7 F Jupiter G Neptune H Saturn I Uranus Extend Your Learning Turn the page to Learn Out Loud 3 4 Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 95

18 Think, Discuss, Share Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide From My Teacher 96 The Solar System

19 Benchmark Mini-Assessment Chapter 2 Lesson 2 Multiple Choice Bubble the correct answer. Diameter: Earth Data Average distance from Sun: Period of rotation: Period of revolution: Number of moons: 1 12,742 km 1. Which are the correct values missing from the table above? SC.8.E.5.7 A J: 0.39 AU; K: 59 days; L: 88 days B J: 0.72 AU; K: 244 days; L: 225 days C J: 1.00 AU; K: 24 hours; L: 365 days D J: 1.52 AU; K: 24.6 hours; L: 1.88 years 2. Corey is calculating how much he would weigh on the different terrestrial planets. He would weigh the least on SC.8.E.5.7 F Earth. G Mars. H Mercury. I Venus. J K L 3. How is Venus similar to Earth? SC.8.E.5.7 A Both have the same day length. B Both rotate in the same direction. C Both have ample water on their surfaces. D Both have a solid inner core and a liquid outer core. 4. Which of the inner planets has the highest percentage of carbon dioxide in its atmosphere? SC.8.E.5.7 F Earth G Mars H Mercury I Venus Extend Your Learning Turn the page to Learn Out Loud Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 97

20 Think, Discuss, Share Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide From My Teacher 98 The Solar System

21 Benchmark Mini-Assessment Chapter 2 Lesson 3 Multiple Choice Bubble the correct answer. Atmosphere Core Liquid hydrogen 3. What are the outer planets mostly made of? SC.8.E.5.7 A hydrogen and helium B rock and hydrogen C helium and metallic materials D rock and metallic materials Great Red Spot 1. Which planet is shown in the image above? SC.8.E.5.3 A Jupiter B Neptune C Saturn D Uranus 2. Which outer planet has the most complex ring system in the solar system? SC.8.E.5.3 F Jupiter G Neptune H Saturn I Uranus 4. What is unusual about Uranus, as seen in the image above? SC.8.E.5.7 F the axis of rotation G the distinctive rings H the gases that it is made of I the nearly spherical shape Extend Your Learning Turn the page to Learn Out Loud Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 99

22 Think, Discuss, Share Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide From My Teacher 100 The Solar System

23 Benchmark Mini-Assessment Chapter 2 Lesson 4 Multiple Choice Bubble the correct answer. 4. Which image below is a solar system object that may have originated in the Oort cloud? SC.8.E.5.3 F 1.2 km 1. What type of object created the depression on Earth s surface that is shown in the image above? SC.8.E.5.7 A asteroid B comet C meteor D meteorite 2. A dwarf planet is likely to SC.8.E.5.3 F have a bright tail and a glowing nucleus. G have chunks of rock and ice that never clump together. H have a liquid hydrogen layer that surrounds a solid core. I have objects similar in mass orbiting nearby. 3. A space probe traveling from Earth will hit the asteroid belt after passing which planet? SC.8.E.5.1 A Mars B Saturn C Uranus D Venus G H I Extend Your Learning Turn the page to Learn Out Loud Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice The Solar System 101

24 Think, Discuss, Share Benchmark Practice Chapter Review Study Guide From My Teacher 102 The Solar System

25 Notes Study Guide Chapter Review Benchmark Practice Stars and Galaxies 103