1 Chariho Regional School District - Science Curriculum September, 2016 ASTRONOMY CURRICULUM Unit 1: Introduction to Astronomy OVERVIEW Summary Students will be introduced to the overarching concept of astronomy. They will look at the history of astronomical exploration and the advancements that have been made in the field since the time of Aristotle. They will learn about the various types of telescopes and how optical principles are used to capture images of the universe. The students will make connections between the advancements in technology and the information available for scientists. Finally, they will gain perspective of the universe by understanding the scale of distances and units of measure. Content to Be Learned Major findings and contributions of the ancient and modern astronomers, including Aristotle, Aristarchus, Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Brahe and others. Properties, similarities, and differences between optical, radio and x-ray telescopes, how telescopes are used to photograph the universe, and how they are used in satellites. Explore Optics, the branch of physics that deals with properties of light, including reflection and refraction of light. Most importantly at this point, understand how light is used in telescopes to create images. Age and scale of the universe- understand how to measure large distances and large time scales, and what units of measure are used in the process. Parallax is the apparent displacement of a close object compared to the displacement to a background object and can be used to note the relative distance of stars to one another and to earth. Practices Engaging in argument from evidence. Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Crosscutting Concepts Scale, proportion and quantity. Cause and effect. Essential Questions Historically, how has the field of astronomy changed over the course of human existence? What is the universe and what is earth s place in it? How does technology help expand our knowledge of the universe? How does light travel through lenses and how are lenses used in a telescope to create an image?
2 Next Generation Science Standards Unit 2: Origins of the Universe OVERVIEW Summary Students will investigate the evidence for the Big Bang theory and the origins and expansion of the universe. They will learn about the properties of the electromagnetic spectrum and how objects, like stars or galaxies, give off spectral signatures. These patterns can be used to identify the composition, as well as other characteristics, of that star or galaxy. Students will apply the Doppler Effect to the movement of stars and galaxies, and can then use the information about this movement to support the Big Bang theory. Content to Be Learned The Big Bang theory describes the origin of the universe and is supported by observations of moving celestial objects, including galaxies and stars. Galaxies are clusters of stars, gases and other celestial debris and exist in various forms. Galaxies are grouped in clusters. The electromagnetic spectrum describes the various forms of radiation that exist in our universe, and each form of radiation can be differentiated based on wavelength, frequency and speed.
3 Each different wavelength of electromagnetic radiation has a unique signature, and is based on the composition of the object emitting that radiation. Spectroscopy is the branch of science that measures spectra produced when matter emits electromagnetic radiation. Different elements, stars, galaxies, as well as other objects in space have spectra that allow us to identify their composition. Using known spectral signatures, the Doppler effect shows how the movement of an object towards or away from the viewpoint can shift the spectra of an object. This shift allows scientists to know what direction an object in space is moving. Wein s displacement law and Planck s law can be used to further understand the electromagnetic radiation of an object in space. Practices Constructing explanations and designing solutions. Engaging in argument from evidence. Crosscutting Concepts System and system models. Energy and matter. Essential Questions How can information about light spectra, motion of galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe support the Big Bang theory? How does the Big Bang theory explain the origins and expansion of our universe? How can the movement of distant objects in space be observed from earth?
4 Next Generation Science Standards
5 Unit 3: Stars OVERVIEW Summary Students will focus on the formation of, life cycle and death of a star and will compare this series of events for different types of stars. To do this, student will learn about the structure and composition of stars, and how different characteristics can be measured by astronomers on earth. They will learn to identify a star in various stages of its life, and will be able to classify main sequence stars into spectral classes. They will learn about nuclear fusion that occurs inside a star, where the fuel comes from and what happens to the products of those reactions. They will communicate how a star, over its lifetime, produces elements. Finally, they will analyze data on the brightness/color and temperature of stars to then identify their stage of life, using the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
6 Content to Be Learned The structure and composition of a star are used to define and categorize it. Different types of stars follow similar, yet different, life cycle patterns. The life cycle of a star is primarily based on the size of the protostar. Stars all begin from dust, and the formation of a star will follow a series of events. Nuclear reactions within stars create the radiation emitted and are fueled by hydrogen and/or helium, depending of the life stage of the star. A star s characteristics, such as parallax, luminosity, apparent and absolute brightness (magnitude), size, and temperature, can be measured. The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a useful tool for analyzing data on star temperature, brightness and color and is used to classify stars. A binary star system is one where two stars orbit each other where the center of mass is not located within either star. Main sequence stars can be categorized into 7 different spectral classes (O, B, A, F, G, K, and M) based on common properties, including temperature, color, mass, luminosity, and life span. Practices Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information. Using mathematics and computational thinking. Analyzing and interpreting data. Crosscutting Concepts Stability and change. Energy and matter. Essential Questions How does the size and composition of a star influence the path that it takes during its lifetime? How does a star form from dust and gas in the universe? How does nuclear fusion inside a star work and how does the presence or absence of fuel move a star from one phase of its life into the next? How can the H-R diagram provide scientists with information about the category, temperature or brightness of a star? How can various characteristics of a star be measured by astronomers?
7 Next Generation Science Standards
8 Unit 4: Objects in Space OVERVIEW Summary Students will understand the different designations for objects in space. They will learn what defines a planet, and what differentiates it from a dwarf planet. Similarly, they will classify objects as either comets, meteors or asteroids, and will further classify meteors as meteoroids and meteorites. They will use data from asteroid hits on the moon and other planet surfaces to draw conclusions about the formation of the solar system and formation of the earth, and early earth history. Finally, the students will explore how objects impact surfaces, specifically focusing on craters on the surface of the earth and moon, and Mercury. Content to Be Learned A planet is a celestial body that has a predictable orbit around a star. They can be rocky, icy or gassy. Exoplanets are celestial bodies that orbit a star other than our sun. Thousands have been discovered using mainly NASA s Kepler telescope. Comets, meteors, meteorites, meteoroids, and asteroids are smaller pieces of rock or ice that are not part of a planet.
9 Comets, meteors, meteorites, meteoroids, and asteroids can give information about the origins of our solar system, the origins of life, and earth s formation and early history. A binary asteroid is a system of two asteroids orbiting a barycenter. Craters are depressions on a planet or moon surface caused by the impact of a smaller body with the surface. Their size and shape vary and are due to the size of the impacting body, the speed of collision, and angle of collision. Practices Constructing explanations and designing solutions. Crosscutting Concepts Stability and change. Essential Questions Why did the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter not form into a planet? Do we have the technology to change the path of an asteroid? What is the difference between asteroids, comets, and meteors? Why is it believed that comets are derived from the Oort cloud? How often do Near Earth Objects enter earth s atmosphere? What happens to them as they travel through the atmosphere? What evidence from meteorites and the surfaces of the moon and other planets give us information about the formation of the earth and its early history? How can observations of cratering be used to estimate the age of a body s surface?
10 Next Generation Science Standards
11 Unit 5: The Solar System OVERVIEW Summary Students will apply mathematical concepts to astronomy in order to calculate various orbits. They will use Kepler s laws to investigate the elliptical nature of planetary orbits and predict the movement of the planets from available empirical data, just as Kepler did. They will review Newton s laws and apply them to the study of the solar system and use them to support Kepler s work with physics. They will conduct a brief inventory of the planets, noting similarities among the Terrestrial planets, and the Jovian planets, and differences between the two groups. They will learn about the various features of moons and rings of the planets. Finally, they will learn about the differences between a planet and a dwarf planet, and debate the current classification of Pluto and Ceres as dwarf planets. Content to Be Learned Orbits of planets in the solar system have varying eccentricities based on the distance between the two focal points of the ellipse. Orbits of the individual planets can be tracked and measured, and retrograde motion can be explained based on the regular patterns of the orbits. Kepler s three laws define the shapes of the planetary orbits and make definite, testable predictions about the movement of the planets. Newton s laws explain the physics that underlies Kepler s laws. Specifically, his Law of Gravity explains how the attraction between the sun and the planets is responsible for the orbits of said planets. Formation of the solar system was likely due to the Condensation Theory which follows that the planets were formed from a process of dust condensation, accretion and fragmentation. The inner and outer planets are separated by the asteroid belt and among the Terrestrial and Jovian planets, there are many similarities. Each planet has unique characteristics. Dwarf planets are planets and exoplanets that do not have clear orbits around a star. They include Pluto and Ceres in our solar system. The Asteroid belt lies between Mars and Jupiter and the Kuiper belt lies outside of Neptune s path. Most planets have moons, each that have their own unique characteristics. Practices Using mathematical and computational thinking. Analyzing and interpreting data. Crosscutting Concepts Cause and effect. Scale, proportion and quantity.
12 Essential Questions How can Kepler s laws predict the movement of a planet and the ellipse upon which the planet orbits? What modifications were made by Newton to Kepler s laws? What are the major differences between the Terrestrial and Jovian planets? What characteristics of a celestial body are needed in order to classify it as a planet vs a dwarf planet? How does our current understanding of the formation of the solar system build upon previous knowledge? How do scientists think the solar system was formed? Next Generation Science Standards
14 Unit 6: The Sun-Moon-Earth System OVERVIEW Summary Students will finish the course by focusing on the interactions of the earth with the moon and sun. They will review nuclear fusion and discuss its role in defining characteristics of the sun. They will learn about the various dynamic layers of the sun, and how the atomic interactions vary from layer to layer. They will observe surface dynamics of the sun, including sunspots, flares and other features, and understand how the fluctuations on the sun have interesting and unique effects on earth. They will review surface features of the moon and will investigate the exploration of the moon that has occurred. Students will track moon phases in the night sky and understand why there are changes to what we see every night. They will also look at how the positioning of the earth, moon and sun can result in solar and lunar eclipses. Finally, they will also discuss how the moon influences the tides on earth, and, along with the sun, how those changes can be seen on a daily and monthly scale. Content to Be Learned Our sun is unique in its relationship with earth and allows for life to exist. The sun s structure consists of the corona, photosphere, chromosphere, transition zone, convection zone, radiation zone and the core, each with their own properties and characteristics. Nuclear fusion occurs within the sun in which a reaction converts hydrogen into helium and releases energy, which makes its way into space. The sun is an active star, and its sunspots, solar winds, magnetism, prominences, flares, and other features all contribute to the dynamic workings of the sun. Moon structures include craters, lava fields ( maria ), and highlands. The surface closer to earth varies greatly from the surface that faces away from earth. The synchronous orbit of the moon is due to the gravitational interactions between the earth and the moon. Phases of the moon show the regular patterns in the amount of the lit moon that can be seen from earth. Exploration of the moon, both by telescope and by astronauts, have given us a rich history and new data from which many scientific areas have been expanded upon. The history of man s fascination with the moon is an important part of our cultural history as a country. Eclipses, both solar and lunar, are due to the relative motion and positioning of the sun, earth and moon. Tides on earth are caused by the combined forces of the sun and moon acting on the surface of the earth, on various time scales. High and low tides are due to the movement of the moon around the earth, and spring and neap tides are due to the combined forces of the sun and moon and their relative positions around the earth. Practices Developing and using models. Constructing explanations and designing solutions. Analyzing and interpreting data.
15 Crosscutting Concepts Structure and function. Scale, proportion and quantity. Energy and matter. Essential Questions How do the characteristics of the moon compare with those of earth? What is the root cause(s) of those differences? How is the moon s rotation influenced by its orbit around earth? What data do astronomers use to piece together the story of the moon s formation and evolution? What do the characteristics of the sun s outer layers tell us about the sun s surface temperature and composition? What is the nature of the sun s magnetic field and what is its influence on various types of solar activity? What is the process by which energy is produced in the sun s interior? What is the difference between a sidereal and a synodic month? How do the relative motions of the earth, the sun and the moon lead to solar and lunar eclipses?
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