A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

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1 A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a hot core It is estimated there are more stars in the universe than there are grains of sand on all the beaches on Earth. See pages

2 Space is filled with the stuff to make stars. Interstellar matter Means between the stars. Describes the regions of space between stars. By peering through the interstellar matter (dust and gases), astronomers can observe the birth of stars.

3 The formation of Stars Stars are formed from massive clouds of dust and gas in space

4 Gravity pulls the dust and gas together

5 As the mass falls together it gets hot. A star is formed when it is hot enough for a nuclear reaction to start - the hydrogen nuclei fuse together to make helium. This releases energy which keeps the core of the star hot.

6 During this stable phase in the life of a star, the force of gravity holding the star together is balanced by the high pressure due to the high temperatures. Our Sun is at this stable phase in its life. The Sun is halfway through its 10 billion year stable phase

7 Nebula (dust & gas) Gravity pulls dust & gas together Mass grows Material collapses in on itself Protostar (early star) contracts Small mass collected Enough gas & dust collected At that point Shrinks away Core reaches C

8 Atoms fuse together (Hydrogen atoms combine to form heavier helium atoms) NUCLEAR FUSION REACTION ENERGY!!!! c A Star is Born O0&feature=related

9 Figure main life paths of stars

10 The Evolution of Stars Stars do not stay the same forever, and their future depends on how Low Mass Stars much mass they have. Classification Characteristics Speed of burning fuel Life time (years) What happens to them? Low Mass Star Dim Cool Red dwarf Very slow 100 Billion years Eventually change into very hot, small, dim white dwarfs Summary : Red dwarf white dwarf

11 Intermediate Mass Stars Classification Characteristics Speed of burning fuel Life time (years) What happens to them? Intermediate Mass Star Similar to our Sun Expands to a Red Giant Our sun will expand to a red giant in about 5 billion years Fast 10 Billion years Collapses in on itself Shrinks to form a white dwarf Then cools to become a Black dwarf (dense, dark body made mostly of carbon and oxygen) Summary Red giant white dwarf black dwarf

12 A white dwarf star compared to Earth

13 High Mass Stars Classification Characteristics Speed of burning fuel Life time (years) What happens to them? High Mass Star 12 or more times the mass of our Sun) Expands to a Red Giant Very fast Due to rapid growth and large size 7 billion years Uses up all energy & becomes a supergiant Collapse in on themselves causing dramatic explosion called a supernova Summary Red giant super giant neutron star

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15 Neutron stars The explosion from a star forming a supernova throws dust and gas into space which may eventually form parts of a new stars. The material left behind after the explosion forms a very dense type of star, called a neutron star (much denser than a white dwarf)

16 Black holes The remnants of a supernova may form a neutron star; however, if enough matter is left behind, it may contract under its own gravity to become extremely dense. With such a strong gravitational field that nothing can escape from it, not even light

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18 Questions Why are supernovas so important to us? What is a neutron star? What evidence is there for the existence of black holes? Workbook pages 154 &157

19 Look at the diagram.. It shows a Star Cluster What are 3 observations you can make? size color brightness temperature

20 Made observations about Stars Both concluded stars do not stay the same forever Stars do not exist in all sizes, luminosities, or temperatures. What did they observe? Possible scale 1. Luminosity (brightness) Dim Bright 2. Color Bluer Redder 3. Temperature Hotter Cooler This information was plotted on a graph known as the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

21 It shows that stars are found in three main categories: 1. giants (sometimes subdivided into giants and supergiants), 2. main sequence, and 3. dwarf stars. See page 374

22 Astronomers reasoned that if a star were hotter, it should have a higher luminosity, and a cooler star would be dimmer. As it turns out, most stars, (90%) fit this pattern. They can be found on the HR diagram in the large group that stretches across the middle of the diagram. These are called the Main Sequence Stars There are a few "Red Giants", or "Blue Super giants", Finally there are a few very faint stars near the bottom left of the diagram - these are the white dwarfs.

23 The colour of a star reveals its temperature and chemical composition to astronomers. Red stars = cool = 3000 ºC Yellow stars = hot = 6000 ºC Blue stars = hottest = ºC ºC See pages

24 Using a spectroscope, the light emitting from a star reveals spectral bands that show certain gases in the star as different elements have different spectral patterns Of course, spectral lines are also used to identify the movement of stars by utilizing redshift analysis. Red-shift is an example of the Doppler effect, which states that as a wave-emitting object moves, the wavelength of its waves change.

25 Analyzing Spectral Patterns

26 1. (a) Mystery star 1: hydrogen and helium (b) Mystery star 2: hydrogen, helium, and sodium (c) Mystery star 3: hydrogen and calcium 2. (a) Mystery star 4: hydrogen (b) It is red-shifted.

27 Light (and sound) energy travels in waves The wavelength changes due to motion Diagrams on board

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29 The Doppler effect refers to the way waves either compress as their source gets closer, or lengthen as the source gets farther away. The unique spectral pattern each star reveals when examined through a spectroscope allows astronomers to see if the lines shift towards the red part of the spectrum (moving away) or blue (moving closer). See pages

30 A planet is a celestial body that orbits one or more stars Large enough that gravity holds it in a spherical shape Is the only body occupying the orbital path Only reflects light radiated by its star (does not generate its own light) A solar system is a group of planets circling one or more stars Our sun formed 4.5 billion years ago

31 Not all planets formed at the same time Material closest to the Sun formed first Called the inner or terrestrial planet = Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars Solid cores & rocky crusts Farther away, large clumps or gas, ice, and dust formed the outer or Jovian planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Large, gaseous bands & cold

32 My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

33 Earth s rotation around its axis at speed of 1670 km/h or 0.5 km/sec

34 Earth s revolution is around the sun (elliptical orbit) at 30 km/sec

35 110 Earth s to fit across the sun s diameter Mostly hydrogen gas fusion reactions (H + H = He) produces the Sun s energy (heat & light) Complete The Sun worksheet labelling and defining terms

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38 Sudden bursts of hot gases from the sun s corona Rush past the Earth & cause solar winds Cause Northern/Southern lights at poles when these particles are deflected from Earth s magnetic field Thankfully as they would be fatal otherwise

39 an aurora hovering over the southern Indian Ocean (May, 2010)

40 Moons Orbit the planets Over 150 moons detected in our solar system Mercury & Venus do not have a moon Asteroids Small, left over from formation of solar system Asteroid belt = huge band of asteroids orbiting the Sun

41 Comets Made of ice, rock & gas from Kuiper Belt & Oort Cloud Hurtle through space and when they feel the effects of sunlight, we see its trail of gas & dust Therefore tail will always point away from the Sun

42 Trans-Neptunian objects Objects that circle the sun beyond Neptune such as the Kuiper Belt (made of millions of small bodies) Contains dwarf planets (Pluto) There may be 23 potential planets orbiting in Kuiper Belt

43 Oort Cloud Outermost edge of Sun s gravitational influence Spherical cloud of small, icy fragments of debris Between 50,000 & 100,000 AU (Astronomical Units) away from the Sun

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