The Universe and Galaxies

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1 The Universe and Galaxies

2 Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus on the belief that there is only one universe

3 Universe Occupants Star-a huge ball of hot gas that emits light Galaxy- a collection of millions or billions of star bound together by gravity.

4 Measuring Distances Distances in the universe are beyond comprehension. We use a unit called a light year. (9.5 x m) It measures on how far light travels in one year. Pg compare distances

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7 Distances Light travels at 3.0 x 10 8 m/s or 186,000 mi/sec By car, it would take you 10 million yrs to travel one light year.

8 Distance When you look at objects in space, you are looking back in time. The greater the distance, the further back in time you are looking.

9 Distance Our sun is only 1.5 x10 11 m away, which less than one light year. The next closest star is Alpha Centauri is 4.3 light years away.

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11 most important image

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17 Galaxies It is estimated that there are 100 billion galaxies. Our galaxy is the Milky Way. But the nearest galaxy is 2 million Lt.Yrs away. It is named Andromeda

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19 The Milky Way

20 Andromeda

21 Milky Way Facts Chocolate covered caramel and nougat. Only 120 calories Made by Mars candy

22 Milky Way Facts It is made up of stars, clouds and dust known as interstellar matter. Every star you see in our sky is part of the milky way Spiral shape

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24 Galaxy Types There are three types: 1.Spiral 2.Elliptical 3.Irregular

25 Spiral Have spiral arms that branch out from a cluster of stars near the center. Milky way and Andromeda Younger galaxies Bluish color

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29 Elliptical Oval or egg shaped Older galaxies Reddish in color

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32 Irregular These galaxies have no defined shape. Some contain very little clouds or dust

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35 Galaxy Clusters Clusters are groups of galaxies held together by gravity. Some clusters contain thousands of galaxies and are referred to as superclusters..

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37 Universe is Expanding In 1929 Edwin Hubble concluded that the universe was expanding. He studied the spectral lines of stars in distant galaxies.

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39 Universe is Expanding He found that distant galaxies shifted to the Red end of the spectrum. This indicated that waves were stretching out and thus moving away from us. (wavelengths were getting bigger)

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41 Universe is Expanding He concluded that galaxies are moving away from each other. This means that the universe is expanding.

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43 How the Universe was Created?

44 How the Universe was Created?

45 How the Universe was Created?

46 How the Universe was Created? Big Bang Theory It is generally believed that the universe is 15 billion yrs old. This theory begins with the premise that nothing but an atom existed before the Big Bang.

47 Big Bang Theory From this super atom came a large explosion that produced everything we see today. (mass, space, time, and energy)

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49 Evidence of Big Bang Scientist working NJ detected cosmic background radiation in the form of microwaves. This radiation was predicted by the theory. The radiation has shown a cooling trend which has allowed scientist to measure the overall temperature of the universe. (2.7 K) Also the amount hydrogen (most common element)

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51 Future of the Universe Three options exist: 1. It will expand forever 2. It will expand then stabilize at a given size 3. It will stop expanding and fall back on itself.

52 Future of the Universe The amount of matter in the universe will determine which option will be followed.

53 Stars and the Sun 16.2

54 Stars Huge balls of gas that emit a tremendous amount of light and heat stars can be seen with the unaided eye from Earth.

55 No, they don t t look like this!!!

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57 Stars Constellations-a group of stars appearing in a pattern as seen from Earth Greeks thought they were characters from Mythology

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63 Our Sun Is a typical star. 110 times bigger than the Earth. It is average in size and temperature compared to other stars

64 Star Properties 1. Brightness Brightness depends on star s temperature (intensity), size, or distance from the Earth.

65 Sirius the brightest star besides the sun, in our sky.

66 2. Color Color of a star is related to its temperature. Lower the wavelength, the higher the frequency, the hotter the star. Stars emitting a blue color are the hottest-most energy.

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68 3. Composition/Make-up 3. Scientist use spectral lines to reveal the composition of stars. Each element has its own unique spectral line. ~90% H, 9.9% He,.1% others

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70 Spectral Lines from Different elements

71 4. Power Powered by nuclear fusion Hydrogen atoms combine to form helium nuclei and releases energy Energy moves slowly through the layers of the sun by radiation and convection

72 Mayor Layers of Stars Most inner- Core 15,000,000 K Radiative Zone Convective Zone Energy transferred In these layers Most outer layer - Corona 2,000,000 K

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74 Life of a Star Birth and the 1 st 30 million years Stars are born in a cloud of dust and gas called Nebulas In these clouds protons start moving very rapidly and move very close to each other, allowing fusion to take place.

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77 Mid-Life and the Next 5 billion Years Fusion reactions maintain a equilibrium balance with in the star. Our sun and 90% of other stars are in this stage.

78 The Death of a Star Fusion slows causing the core to increase in temperature This cause the outer layers expand out. The star becomes a red giant A large reddish star late in its life cycle that fuses helium into carbon and oxygen.

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80 The Death of a Star Fusion with in the star stops and the star expands out as a nebula of gas The remaining core becomes a white dwarf A small (size of Earth), very dense star that remains after fusion has stopped.

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82 Death of Larger Stars Larger star expand into Supergiants. An extremely large star that creates elements as heavy as iron When fusion stops, they have a more dramatic death, a supernova. A powerful explosion that occurs when a massive star dies.

83 Supergiant Star

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87 After a Supernova Two results: 1. Neutron Star- A dense dead star with surrounded by nebular gases 2. Black hole- An object so massive and dense that not even light can escape its gravity

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93 The Solar System 16.3

94 View from the Earth Five planets can be seen from the Earth with the unaided eye: Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Saturn

95 View from the Earth It was once thought that the Earth was the center and not the sun. Copernicus was the first to say the planets orbit the sun

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97 View from the Earth Astronomer Kepler showed that planets orbit are ellipses not perfect circles. Galileo invented the telescope which helped prove Kepler and Copernicus correct.

98 Planets Any massive body of matter orbiting a star. planets do not give off their own light, they only reflect and absorb star light. This is why it is difficult for astronomers to discover planets. Planet Song

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100 Inner Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Relatively small, have solid, rocky surfaces, and more dense.

101 Mercury Has extreme temperatures on the surface because it spins very slowly on its axis. Has a cold side and hot side Almost no atmosphere and no water. Zero moons

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104 Venus Hottest planet do to its very thick atmosphere of CO 2 and sulfuric acid (Extreme green house effect) Because of its atmosphere, it also reflects the most light. Sometimes called the Morning/Evening Star No moons

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107 Venus the evening Star

108 Morning Star

109 Earth Large amounts of water, rich stable atmosphere, and moderate stable temperatures give Earth perfect conditions to support life as we know it.

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111 Mars Small amounts of water found at the poles. There may be underground water sources thin Atmosphere containing CO 2 2 moons

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115 Life on Mars???

116 censor censor

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119 Asteroid Belt Divides the inner planets from the outer planets Asteroid- A small rocky object that orbits the sun. Could one of these hit our planet? Odds are small but possible

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128 Meteorite Caught on Tape

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130 Outer Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Sorry Pluto Larger, thick gaseous atmospheres. Called Gas giants No solid surface, very little density

131 Jupiter Big enough to hold 1300 Earths Famous for the great red spot (hurricane-like storm) Atmosphere made up of H 2, He, methane, and ammonia. Has a thin ring 16 moons

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135 Saturn Famous for its amazing rings Rings are dust rock and ice Atmosphere made up of H 2, He, methane, and ammonia. Has 18 moons

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138 Uranus and Neptune Called the sister planets Both are blue in color due to their thick methane filled atmosphere Uranus 20 moons and a thin ring Neptune 8 moons and a thin ring

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140 Neptune

141 Pluto Thin nitrogen atmosphere Icy rocky, solid surface Its orbit is at a different angle than the other planets. Now considered dwarf planet due to its smaller size

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143 Neptune

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145 Are Aliens Real?

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159 Formation of the Solar System Our solar system is 4.6 billion years old Nebular Model Theory- -a model that describes the sun forming together out of a cloud of dust and gas --Inner planets formed from rocks and dust, and the gas giants formed from gases farther out

160 Moons Moons orbit planets The moon are also called natural satellite

161 The Moon Phases Full Cresent less than half Quarter- you see a half moon Gibbous- you see more than half New- moon not visible

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163 Eclipse An event that occurs when one object passes into the shadow of another object Two types: solar and lunar

164 Lunar Neptune Eclipse

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166 Solar Eclipse

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169 universe song

170 fun

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