Chapter 3 The Solar System

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1 Name: Date: Period: Chapter 3 The Solar System Section 1 Observing the Solar System (pp ) Key Concepts What are the geocentric and heliocentric systems? How did Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler contribute to our knowledge of the solar system? What objects make up our solar system? Key Terms Geocentric Heliocentric Ellipse Observing the Solar System 1) What is the main difference between the geocentric and heliocentric models of planetary motion? _ 2) How did the Greek model and Ptolemy s model differ? Page 1

2 _ 3) How did Galileo s observations of Jupiter and Venus support Copernicus s model? _ Building Vocabulary Fill in each blank to complete each statement. 4) The sun-centered system of planets developed by Copernicus is an example of a(n) model. 5) Kepler discovered that the orbit of each planet is a(n), rather than a perfect circle. 6) An Earth-centered system of planets is known as a(n) model. 7) Complete the table below, which shows what each scientist contributed to our knowledge of the solar system. Observer Time Accomplishment Copernicus a. Further developed heliocentric model; worked out arrangement of known planets Brahe Late 1500s b. c. d. Used a telescope to make discoveries that supported the heliocentric model Kepler Early 1600s e. f. Use the table to give examples of how the work of many scientists over time has led to our current understanding of the solar system. 8) What does the solar system consist of? Page 2

3 Section 2 The Sun (pp ) Key Concepts What are the three layers of the sun s interior What are the three layers of the sun s atmosphere? What features form on or above the sun s surface? Label the diagram of the sun below. Building Vocabulary Match each term with its description by writing the letter of the correct description in the right column on the line next to the term in the left column. 7. Solar flare 8. Core 9. Chromosphere 10. Sunspot 11. Corona a. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that gives off visible light b. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that has a reddish glow c. the layer of the sun s atmosphere that looks like a halo during an eclipse d. areas of gas on the sun s surface that are cooler than the gases around them e. reddish loops of gas that link parts of sunspot regions Page 3

4 12. Nuclear fusion 13. Photosphere 14. Solar wind 15. Prominence 16. Radiation zone 17. Convection zone f. eruptions that occur when the loops in sunspot suddenly connect g. a stream of charged particles produced by the corona regions h. the center of the sun i. the outermost layer of the sun s interior j. the joining of hydrogen atoms to form helium k. the layer of the sun s interior where energy is transferred mainly by electromagnetic radiation The Sun s Interior (pp. 79) 18) The sun s energy comes from a process called. 19) What occurs in nuclear fusion? 20) Where does nuclear fusion occur in the sun? 21) Order the layers of the sun s interior from inner layer to outer layer. The Sun s Atmosphere (pp ) 22) Order the layers of the sun s atmosphere from inner layer to outer layer. 23) Which layer do you see when you look at a typical image of the sun? 24) How can you identify the chromosphere during a total solar eclipse? Page 4

5 25) Why can you see a corona during a total solar eclipse? 26) The corona sends out a stream of electrically charged particles called the. 27) Name three features on or above the sun s surface. a. b. c. Match the feature on the sun with its description. Feature 28. Sunspots 29. Prominences 30. Solar flares Description a. Areas of gas on the sun s surface that are cooler than the gases around them b. Large eruptions of gas out into space c. Reddish loops of gas that link different parts of sunspot regions 31) When solar flares increase solar wind from the corona, what do they cause in Earth s upper atmosphere? Section 3 The Inner Planets (pp ) Key Concepts What are the characteristics do the inner planets have in common? What are the main characteristics that distinguish each of the inner planets? Key Terms Terrestrial planets Greenhouse effect Page 5

6 Use the table The Inner Planets on page 85 of your textbook to answer questions 3 and 4. 1) Rank the inner planets according to diameter. Rank the planet with the greatest diameter as Mercury Venus Earth Mars 2) Which planet rotates on its axis in about the same amount of time that Earth does? 3) The drawing below shows the sun and the four inner planets. Label the inner planets according to their place in the solar system. 4) Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Earth. a. About 70 percent of its surface is covered with water. b. Its atmosphere extends about 1 kilometer above its surface. c. Most of the atmosphere is composed of oxygen gas. d. No other planet in the solar system has oceans like Earth s. 5) What are the three main layers of Earth? a. b. c. 6) What is Earth s dense inner core made of? Page 6

7 Mercury (p. 86) 7) Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Mercury. a) Mercury s surface has many craters. b) Mercury has no moons. c) The interior of Mercury is composed mostly of the element mercury. d) Mercury is the planet closest to the sun. 8) Why does Mercury have a greater range of temperatures than any other planet? Venus (pp ) 9) Because Venus is often a bright object in the west after sunset, it is sometimes called the. 10) Why is Venus sometimes called Earth s twin? 11) Circle the letter of the gas that makes up most of the atmosphere of the planet Venus. a. oxygen b. nitrogen c. sulfuric acid d. carbon dioxide 12) How is the rotation of Venus different from that of most other planets and moons? 13) Is the following sentence true or false? The atmosphere of Venus is so thick that there is never a sunny day on its surface. 14) The trapping of heat by the atmosphere of Venus is called the. Mars (pp ) 15) Why is Mars called the red planet? 16) The atmosphere on Mars is composed mostly of. Page 7

8 17) Is the following sentence true or false? There are no canals on Mars. 18) Why do some regions on Mars look darker than others? 19) Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Mars. a) The rocks on Mars are covered with a rusty dust. b) Mars has seasons because it is tilted on its axis. c) Mars has many large oceans on its surface. d) Mars has giant volcanoes on its surface. 20) What are the two moons of Mars? a. b. 21) Complete the table to compare and contrast characteristics of Earth and Mars. Characteristics of Earth and Mars Characteristic Earth Mars Atmosphere Mostly nitrogen and oxygen a. Moons One b. Seasons c. Yes Surface Solid and rocky d. Water e. At poles and possibly underground f. Use the table to identify which characteristics of Mars make it difficult or impossible for humans to live there without life support. Page 8

9 Section 4 The Outer Planets (pp ) Key Concepts What characteristics do the gas giants have in common? What characteristics distinguish each of the outer planets? Key Terms Gas giant Ring Gas Giants and Pluto (pp ) 1) The first four outer planets do not have solid. 2) Which four planets are known as the gas giants? 3) What is the composition of the gas giants? 4) The drawing below shows the sun, the four inner planets, and the five outer planets. Label the outer planets according to their typical place in the solar system. Page 9

10 5) Describe the composition of the rings that surround the gas giants. Jupiter (pp ) 6) Is the following sentence true or false? Jupiter is the most massive planet in the solar system. 7) What is the Great Red Spot on Jupiter? 8) Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Jupiter. a) Jupiter has a dense core of hydrogen and helium. b) Jupiter s atmosphere is extremely thin. c) Jupiter has dozens of moons revolving around it. d) Many of Jupiter s moons have been discovered in recent years. 9) What are Jupiter s four largest moons? a. b. c. d. 10) Jupiter s moon Io is covered with active. Saturn (p. 98) 11) What are Saturn s rings made of? 12) Is the following sentence true or false? Saturn has only a few thin rings. 13) The largest of Saturn s moons is called. Uranus (p. 99) 14) Why does Uranus look blue-green? Page 10

11 15) How much larger is Uranus than Earth? 16) What discovery made astronomer William Herschel famous? 17) How is the rotation of Uranus unlike that of most of the other planets? 18) What are Uranus s five largest moons like? 19) Which spacecraft sent many images of Uranus back to Earth? Neptune (p. 101) 20) Is the following sentence true or false? Neptune s atmosphere is blue and has no clouds. 21) In the1800s, how did astronomers predict that the planet Neptune would be discovered before anyone had seen it? 22) Circle the letter of the sentence that explains how the Great Dark Spot was like the Great Red Spot. a) Both formed from volcanoes. b) Both formed on rings. c) Both were probably storms. d) Neither lasted long. 23) Which is the largest of Neptune s moons? Page 11

12 Pluto (p. 100) 24) Is the following sentence true or false? Pluto is smaller than Earth s moon. 25) How often does Pluto revolve around the sun? 26) Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about Pluto. a) Its moon is more than half Pluto s size. b) Pluto has a gaseous surface. c) Some astronomers consider Pluto and Charon to be a double planet. d) Pluto is sometimes closer to the sun than Neptune. 27) Why has Pluto been reclassified as a Dwarf planet? Page 12

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