CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy

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1 CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy Chapter 15 (Part 1) 1. The theory of how the universe was created is called the 2. Which equation states that matter and energy are interchangeable? 3. All matter in the Universe today came from an original pin prick of limitless 4. Is the universe contracting or expanding? 5. Is the universe speeding up or slowing down? 6. Most of the matter in the universe is clumped together in large masses/clusters called 7. The color of a star tells you what its is. 8. A star is mainly in this state of matter: 9. What chemical reaction produces heat and energy in a star? 10. In the above reaction, four atoms come together to make one atom. 11. What is the hottest color of a star? 12. What is the coolest color of a star? 13. All of the frequencies of spectrum that we can see (all of the colors visible to the human eye) are called the 14. A spectrum with certain wavelengths missing is called an. 15. A projection of only the wavelengths/colors that are emitted by a glowing element is called an 16. What is the most abundant element in the universe? 17. What magnitude is the brightest star we can see? 18. What magnitude is the dimmest star we can see? 19. The brightness of a star as seen from Earth is called its. 20. The brightness of a star 32.6 lightyears from Earth is called 21. The unit of measurement of distances outside of our solar system (i.e. between stars) is called a. 22. The apparent shift of position of a star in outer space due to observing it from different positions of the Earth is called a 23. The shapes of stars in outer space that make different figures (i.e. Orion) are called 24. A star in the process of being born is called a 25. Name the three stages, in order, of a star s life:, 26. When a star uses up all of its hydrogen and starts to die it may grow into a 27. If a star is not very big it will then shrinks down and become a 28. What is the name of Earth s nearest star? 29. What is the size of our sun? Is it small, medium, large or extra large in size? 30. Will our sun super nova? 31. Will our sun create a black hole? 32. What will our sun end up as? 33. Huge, gigantic stars explode. What is this explosion called? 34. The core of huge stars collapse and shrink, tearing a hole in space-time. What is this hole called? 35. A graph that shows the relationship between the surface temperature and absolute magnitude is called a 36. Betelgeuse and Antares are both 37. If the core of a star collapses into a mass of neutrons it becomes a

2 38. If this mass of neutrons spins, projecting a stream of energy, it is called a 39. There is a at the center of every galaxy. 40. What is the name of our galaxy? 41. What is the width (in distance) of our galaxy? 42. How many stars are there in our galaxy? 43. How many galaxies are there in our universe? 44. What type (shape) is our galaxy? 45. An elliptical galaxy is also called a 46. A galaxy with no definite shape is called a galaxy. 47. A group of stars is called a star 48. Name the 5 main components of a galaxy:,, 49. The snow on your TV is caused by from the big bang. 50. How old is the universe? Chapter 15 (Part 2) 1. The brightest stars are stars. 2. The dimmest stars are stars. 3. In order to calculate a star s magnitude, it is necessary to know its apparent magnitude and its distance from the Earth. 4. In order to calculate a star s absolute magnitude, it is necessary to know its magnitude and its distance from the Earth. 5. The sun has a(n) magnitude of +4.8 and an apparent magnitude of In a(n) every color is present. 7. In a(n) the pattern of black lines identifies the elements in a star s atmosphere. 8. Astronomers use an instrument called a(n) to separate a star s light into a spectrum. 9. Gas or dust from a nearby star that falls into a(n) gives off X=-rays. 10. One of the most powerful energy sources in the universe is a(n) 11. According to the, at one time all of the contents of the universe were compressed into a very small volume. 12. A small, hot, dim star that no longer generates energy by nuclear fusion is called a(n) 13. A black hole is difficult to locate because it is so massive and dense that light cannot escape its 14. Unlike spiral galaxies, galaxies stopped making stars more than 10 billion years ago. 15. Galaxies with no definite shape, like the Large Magellanic Cloud, are called galaxies. 16. In one year, light travels over a distance called a(n) 17. The sun is in the longest stage of its life, called the 18. How bright a star is as seen from Earth is called 19. The position of a star may seem to shift because of 20. A star s does not depend on its distance from Earth. 21. After the big bang, caused the matter to be distributed in every direction as the universe expanded.

3 22. According to the Big Bang Theory, was distributed in every direction as the universe expanded. 23. An object so massive and dense that not even light can escape its gravity is called a(n) 24. A highly concentrated group of stars formed at the same time from the same nebula is called a(n) 25. Astronomers learn about the composition and temperature of a star by separating the star s light into a(n) 26. Describe the three main types of galaxies classified by their shapes:, 27. How can astronomers use absorption spectra of stars to find out which elements are in a particular star? 28. Many scientists believe that the expansion rate of the universe will continue to increase. If it does, what will happen to the universe? 29. Describe the temperature and brightness of the star marked with an X. 30. Explain how the apparent movement of the stars in the night sky different from the movement of the stars within a constellation. 31. What information is plotted on the H-R diagram (x-y axis)? 32. What is a supernova? 33. How does a neutron star differ from a pulsar? 34. What is a nebula? 35. What are open clusters and where are they found? 36. What is cosmic background radiation? 37. Approximately how old is the universe? 38. Where are globular clusters found? 39. Describe the role of hydrogen in a main-sequence star. 40. Why are blue stars so hot? 41. Why do blue stars have short lives? 42. If you traced the paths of the stars in the night sky over a few hours, why would they all appear to circle around Polaris, also called the North Star? 43. The sun is about 1.5 x m from Earth. If the sun suddenly burned out, about how many minutes would elapse before people on Earth would know? (Hint: The speed of light is about 3 x 108 m/s). Show your work below:

4 CST Prep- 8 th Grade Astronomy Chapter 16 (Part 1) 1. A is a system of one or more stars, its planets and their satellites. 2. Giant clouds of gas are called 3. A cloud of gas that gives birth to a star is called a 4. What force pulls matter together? 5. What pushes matter apart? 6. The center of a star is called its 7. The visible part of the sun that we can see from Earth is called its 8. The sun s outer-most atmospheres are called the 9. Combining four hydrogen atoms to create helium is how the sun produces its energy. This process is called 10. The process above (#9) requires extreme and 11. The distance from the sun to Earth is called one 12. Name the planets, in order, starting closest to the sun:,,,, 13. Name the 4 inner/rocky planets:, 14. Name the 4 outer/gas giants:, 15. Which outermost planet is no longer a planet? 16. Number 15 above is now called a 17. What two things balance each other out, keeping planets in orbit around their stars or moons/satellites around their planets? 18. Which one from #17 is a centripetal force? 19. Sketch a planet and its moon. Draw and label two arrows representing both from #17 above. 20. What word means hard, rocky, dirt surface? 21. Which two planets have no moons? 22. Which planet has one moon? 23. Which planet has two moons? 24. Which planet has the most moons? 25. What is another name for moon? 26. Which planet is called Earth s Twin? 27. Earth s twin has a very dense and heavy 28. Which two acids are in Venus atmosphere? 29. Counter clockwise is rotation of the planets. 30. Clockwise is rotation of the planets. 31. Earth is the only planet with liquid

5 32. What color is Mars? It is this color because it has lots of on its surface. 33. Mars has a very thin 34. Satellites (moons) and small planets have little or no atmosphere because they are too small and have insufficient to hold and maintain an atmosphere. 35. On Mars water is frozen at the 36. The largest volcano in the solar system is on Mars, what is its name? 37. The longest and deepest trench is on the solar system is on Mars, what is its name? 38. Jupiter s big red spot is a giant 39. How many earths can fit in Jupiter s big red spot? 40. What planet is so light it would float in a giant bathtub of water? 41. What interstellar objects are made of dust and ice? 42. What interstellar objects are made out of solid rock and metal? 43. Will Saturn s rings last forever? 44. Name Jupiter s 4 largest moons:, 45. Name Saturn s 3 largest moons:, 46. What planet is knocked over on its side? 47. What planet has the big dark spot? 48. Name a moon of Uranus: 49. Name a moon of Neptune: 50. Name Pluto s moon: 51. What lies between Mars and Jupiter? 52. The theory that something large hit Earth (a small planetoid) is how our was created. 53. The dark spots on the moon are called 54. A full moon is a fully lit moon, an unlit dark moon is called a moon. 55. A word that describes the moon as getting brighter and bigger is 56. A word that describes the moon as getting smaller and less bright is a 57. Where is the moon positioned during a solar eclipse? 58. Where is the Earth positioned during a lunar eclipse? 59. The tail of a comet always points from the sun. 60. This is because the sun projects a. 61. Bits of asteroid or comet fragments that break off in outer space are called 62. When these bits enter our atmosphere they burn up as (also known as shooting stars ). 63. Bits of outer space material that strike the Earth s surface and can be found intact are now called 64. The hole left in the ground from an asteroid impact is called a 65. There are two types of comets, what are they? 66. Does our solar system extend beyond the planets? 67. The cloud, beyond Pluto, is where our comets originate. 68. Draw the planets, in order, relative to their sizes.

6 69. Do other solar systems (planets revolving around stars) exist in our galaxy? Chapter 16 (Part 2) 1. Small bodies of ice and cosmic dust are called 2. The outer planets that have massive gas atmospheres are called 3. Except for Mercury and Venus, all the planets have natural called moons. 4. The glowing trails that result when meteoroids burn up in Earth s atmosphere are called 5. The cloud of gas and dust that formed our solar system is the 6. A planet that appears to spin in a clockwise direction when viewed from above its North Pole has. 7. The average distance between the sun and Earth is called a(n) 8. A planet that appears to spin in a counterclockwise direction when viewed from above its North Pole has. 9. When the shadow of one celestial body falls on another, a(n) occurs. 10. Unlike most planets, Venus has rotation, which means that it appears to spin in a clockwise direction when viewed from above its North Pole. 11. Natural or artificial bodies that orbit larger celestial bodies such as planets are called 12. Because they are rocky and dense, the inner planets of our solar system are called planets. 13. The large, interstellar cloud of gas and dust that formed our solar system is called the 14. Earth completes one each year. 15. How do gravity and pressure keep a nebula from collapsing? 16. Describe the process of nuclear fusion. 17. How are the inner planets different from the outer planets? 18. Describe the difference between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. 19. Describe the current theory of how Earth s moon formed. 20. What causes phases of the moon? 21. What characteristics of Earth s moon supports the current theory of its formation? 22. What is the difference between an annular eclipse and a total solar eclipse? 23. Which planets are parts of the inner solar system? 24. Why are the inner planets known as the terrestrial planets? 25. Compare the meaning of the terms period of rotation and period of revolution. 26. Explain how the planet Neptune was discovered. 27. How do meteorites vary in composition? 28. How do scientists explain the unusual tilt of Uranus axis at an angle of almost 90 o? 29. How has the classification of Pluto changed? 30. What causes the moon to appear red during a lunar eclipse? 31. Describe the two tails of a comet. 32. Why are the planets in the solar system shaped like spheres? 33. Light travels about 300,000 km/s in space. Jupiter is about 780,000,000 km from the sun. How many minutes does it take light from the sun to reach Jupiter? Show your work.

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