Lunar Eclipse. Solar Eclipse

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1 Lunar Eclipse SUN Moon Solar Eclipse SUN SUN Moon Total solar eclipse Partial solar eclipse

2 Moon Phases What does the moon look like from at each position? G H F A E B D C SUNLIGHT

3 Refracting Telescopes Eyepiece Tube Focal point Objective lens Reflecting Primary mirror Eyepiece Secondary mirror

4 How Eratosthenes Calculated 's Circumference Post in Alexandria Sun's rays 787 km Well in Seyene 7.2º (º from Syrene to Alexandria) 360º (º in a circle) x = = 360º x 787 km 7.2º 787 km (distance from Syene to Alexandria) x ( circumference of ) = 39,350 km 7.2º Circumfererce 40,076 km Diameter 12,756 km Radius 6,378 km circle in 360º a Today, 's dimensions are determined using satellite data.

5 How the moon was formed 1. Collision 3. Material from two bodies combines space object 2. Material from 's mantle and crust is broken off 4. Thrown into orbit Moon The Giant Impact Theory 4.5 billion years ago

6 Mercury Spectral Lines R O Y G B V Hydrogen Sodium Helium Neon

7 Tides How the moon causes tides Low tide High tide Moon is pulled by gravity Water is pulled by gravity GRAVITY High tide Low tide SUN Sun's gravity SUN Sun's gravity Spring tide Neap tide

8 Finding 's Mass 9.8 N (F) Equation of Universal Gravitation: Force (N) Mass 1 (kg) F = G m 1 m 2 R 2 Mass 2 (kg) Gravitational constant (6.67 x N-m 2 /kg 2 ) Distance between center of mass 1 and mass 2 (m) m 1 = 1.0 kg R = 6.4 x 10 6 m (radius of ) m 2 =? m 1 is the mass of the pumpkin m 2 is the mass of

9 Solar System Diagram Venus Mercury Asteroid Belt Neptune Saturn Uranus Pluto Jupiter Mars Jupiter

10 Nuclear Fusion Hydrogen 1 proton 1 neutron Helium 2 protons 2 neutrons + Sun Hydrogen 1 proton 2 neutrons 1 neutron + proton neutron

11 How a Photovoltaic Cell Works Sunlight enters the photovoltaic (PV) cells, causing electrons to flow through a circuit to produce electric current. Sunlight An electron has left this atom Electron Atom Electron flow (current) Motor An electron is added to the atom

12 Which Star has the Greatest Absolute Brightness? Big Dipper 69 ly 93 ly 360 ly 53 ly 116 ly 86 ly 62 ly Size of dot represents apparent brightness

13 Apparent Brightness vs. Absolute Brightness Apparent Brightness Absolute Brightness 2 m 100 m 10 m Appears brighter Lower absolute brightness Appears dimmer Higher absolute brightness Appears brighter Appears dimmer

14 H-R Diagram DIMMER Absolute Brightness BRIGHTER HOTTER Temperature (degrees Celsius) COOLER

15 Formation of the Solar System 1 Nebula collapses. 2 Fusion begins. Particles in cloud collide forming the seeds of planets. Nebula Forming Sun Cooler Ices and hydrogen/helium Hotter Metals and rock 3 Terrestrial planets form close to sun. 4 Nebula clears away. Gas planets form further away. Sun and planets are left. Forming Sun Sun Pluto Gas planets form Terrestrial planets form Terrestrial planets Thin atmospheres Small size and mass Gas planets Thick atmospheres Large size and mass

16 The Star Life Cycle BIRTH MAIN SEQUENCE OLD AGE DEATH REMNANTS Sun-like Stars Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf Black Dwarf Protostars Larger Stars (1.5 to 5 times mass of the sun) Red Super Giant Supernova Nebula Neutron Star All stars form in a nebula. Protostar is the earliest stage. Giant Stars (over 5 times mass of the sun) Can be recycled into more stars Black Hole

17 Big Bang Timeline Tiny particle Explosion Rapid Formation expansion of basic element nuclei Universe is formed Universe is a cloud of gaseous matter Electro- magnetic radiation Stable atoms are formed Stars and galaxies are formed Galaxies continue to expand 0 1 sec 3 min 10,000 years 300,000 years 300 Today million years

18 When the source is moving away from the observer, the waves are stretched (longer wavelengths). Doppler Shift Sound Waves Light Waves Moving away Moving toward AMBULANCE longer wavelength lower frequency shorter wavelength higher frequency Light waves shifted toward red Light waves shifted toward violet When the source of a wave is moving, its frequency changes relative to the observer. When the source is moving toward the observer, the waves are compressed (shorter wavelengths). stretched compressed

19 The Milky Way Galaxy From above Side view 100,000 ly Spiral arms Nuclear bulge 26,000 ly Sun 100,000 ly Nuclear bulge 26,000 ly 3,000 ly Sun

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