Name: Date: Period: Biology End of Course Vocabulary 1. This is an organism s unique role in the environment that includes the habitat, function, and

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1 1. This is an organism s unique role in the environment that includes the habitat, function, and activities of the organism. a. Niche 2. This is a inter-species relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is harmed. a. Parasitism 3. This is a inter-species relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is unaffected. a. Commensalism 4. This is a inter-species relationship in which both species benefit. a. Mutualism 5. This is an inter-species relationship in which one species captures, kills, and consumes another species for food. a. Predation 6. This is any type of inter-species relationship in which two species live in a close relationship with each other. a. Symbiosis 7. This principle states that no two species can share the same niche in the same environment. a. Competitive Exclusion 8. This is an organism that produces its own food using either sunlight and/or specific chemicals. a. Autotroph 9. This is an organism that cannot produce its own food through chemical means. a. Heterotroph 10. This is the process by which organisms obtain energy in the form of ATP from carbohydrates. a. Aerobic Cellular Respiration 11. This is the metabolic process that organisms will go through if there is no oxygen available after glycolysis. a. Fermentation 12. This is the step of cellular respiration in which one glucose molecule is decomposed in order to produce pyruvate, ATP, and electron carriers. a. Glycolysis 13. This is the step of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to decompose pyruvate into carbon dioxide, ATP, and electron carriers. a. Krebs Cycle 14. This is the step of cellular respiration that requires oxygen in order to produce the majority of the cells ATP using electron carriers and enzymes. a. Electron Transport Chain 15. This is the process that uses sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide in order to produce carbohydrates and oxygen. a. Photosynthesis 16. This is the step of photosynthesis that uses sunlight in order to split water molecules, produce oxygen, and store energy in ATP and electron carriers. a. Light Dependent Reaction 17. This is the step of photosynthesis that uses carbon dioxide and the chemical energy stored in ATP and electron carriers to produce glucose. a. Calvin Cycle 18. This is the green pigment that is responsible for absorbing sunlight in order to make glucose. a. Chlorophyll 19. This is the level of classification that is determined by the ability of organisms to mate and produce fertile offspring. a. Species

2 20. This is the shift of allele frequencies in a population over generations of time. a. Evolution 21. This is the mechanism of evolution that states that certain variations of traits which provide a reproductive advantage will become more frequent in the population. a. Natural Selection 22. This is the type of selection in which one organism chooses a mate based upon specific phenotypes. a. Sexual Selection 23. This is the type of selection in which both extreme phenotypes are more beneficial than intermediate phenotypes. a. Disruptive Selection 24. This is the type of selection in which intermediate phenotypes are more beneficial than the extreme phenotypes. a. Stabilizing Selection 25. This is the type of selection in which one particular phenotype is more beneficial than the other phenotypes. a. Directional Selection 26. This is the type of selection in which humans choose mates for individual organisms based upon specific phenotypes. a. Artificial Selection 27. This is any inheritable trait that improves an organism s ability to survive and reproduce. a. Adaptation 28. This is an organism s relative position in a sequence of energy transfers in a food chain or an energy pyramid. a. Trophic Level 29. This is the amount of organic matter or living tissue produced within an ecosystem. a. Biomass 30. This is a type of growth rate in which the population continues to grow at a constant rate because resources are plentiful. a. Exponential 31. This is a type of growth rate in which the population growth begins to slow and eventually reaches an equilibrium with the environment because of limited resources. a. Logistic 32. This is the maximum number of individuals of a species that the environment can support due to limited resources. a. Carrying Capacity 33. This is the development of a climax community that begins with bare soil. The primary species are usually short grasses. a. Secondary Succession 34. This is the development of a climax community that begins with bare rock. The primary species are usually lichen. a. Primary Succession 35. This is the level of organization that includes all biotic and abiotic factors in the environment. a. Ecosystem 36. This is the level of organization that includes all biotic factors but no abiotic factors in the environment. a. Community 37. This is the level of organization that includes similar ecosystems. a. Biome

3 38. This is the level of organization that includes all of the portions of Earth that can sustain life. a. Biosphere 39. This is the level of organization that includes all of the organisms of the same species in a specified area. a. Population 40. This is the level of organization that is considered the smallest unit of life. a. Cell 41. This organelle is responsible for producing energy for a cell. a. Mitochondria 42. This organelle is responsible for producing lipids and detoxification of poisonous materials. a. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 43. This organelle is responsible for modifying proteins before they are packaged for export. a. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 44. This organelle is responsible for digestion of large molecules. a. Lysosome 45. This organelle is responsible for making food through photosynthesis. a. Chloroplast 46. This is the organelle responsible for processing and packaging proteins prior to export. a. Golgi Apparatus 47. This is the organelle responsible for protein synthesis. a. Ribosome 48. This is when a vesicle fuses with the cell membrane in order to release substances such as proteins into the extracellular environment. a. Exocytosis 49. This is when the cell membrane forms a vesicle around fluid or solids in order to bring substances into the cytoplasm. a. Endocytosis 50. This type of cell does not have a nucleus or membrane bound organelles. a. Prokaryote 51. This type of cell has a nucleus and organelles with membranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. a. Eukaryote 52. This type of eukaryotic cell does not have a cell wall and are all heterotrophs. a. Animal 53. This type of eukaryotic cell has a large central vacuole and are all autotrophs. a. Plant 54. All prokaryotes are. a. Bacteria 55. This is the type of cellular transport that does not use energy but requires a protein channel to cross the cell membrane. a. Facilitated Diffusion 56. This is the type of cellular transport that moves molecules against the concentration gradient and requires the input of energy. a. Active Transport 57. This is the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane. a. Osmosis 58. This is the movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration.

4 a. Diffusion 59. In this type of solution, a cell will gain mass and swell because of osmosis. a. Hypotonic 60. In this type of solution, a cell will shrink and lose mass because of osmosis. a. Hypertonic 61. In this type of solution, a cell will stay the same size and mass because it is at equilibrium with the solution. a. Isotonic 62. This is the amount of solutes per unit of solvent within any given solution. a. Concentration 63. This type of cell division produces 4 genetically different haploid gametes. a. Meiosis 64. This type of cell division produces 2 genetically identical diploid body cells. a. Mitosis 65. This means that the cell has one complete set of chromosomes with 2 alleles for every gene. a. Diploid 66. This means that the cell has half the original number of chromosomes with 1 allele for every gene. a. Haploid 67. These are chromosomes that contain the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles. a. Homologous 68. This the process that begins in Prophase I of Meiosis that increases genetic diversity. a. Crossing Over 69. This is the first stage of Mitosis in which the spindle forms, chromatin condenses into chromosomes, and the nuclear membrane dissolves. a. Prophase 70. This is the phase of Mitosis where chromosomes are lined up along the equator of the cell. a. Metaphase 71. This is the phase of Mitosis where the sister chromatids are separated and pulled to opposite poles of the cell. a. Anaphase 72. This is the final stage of Mitosis in which the spindle dissolves, chromosomes unwind into chromatin, and the nuclear membrane reforms. a. Telophase 73. This can produce genetic disorders such as Down s Syndrome if chromosomes do not separate correctly during Meioisis. a. Nondisjunction 74. This organ system is responsible for producing hormones and includes the thyroid and adrenal glands. a. Endocrine 75. This organ system is responsible for filtering the blood and includes the kidneys. a. Urinary/Excretory 76. This organ system is responsible for transporting blood from the heart to all of the other tissues of the body. a. Cardiovascular 77. This organ system is responsible for gas exchange and includes the lungs. a. Respiratory 78. This organ system is responsible for communication of stimuli and coordinating responses within the body. a. Nervous 79. This is the part of the experiment that is purposefully changed and causes the change in the measured variable.

5 a. Independent Variable 80. This is the part of the experiment that is the measured effect of changing the manipulated variable. a. Dependent Variable 81. This is the part of an experiment that is used for comparison because the independent variable is not changed. a. Control Group 82. This is the part of an experiment in which the independent variable is changed. a. Experimental Group 83. This is a different form of a gene. a. Allele 84. This is the segment of DNA that codes for a specific protein. a. Gene 85. This is a compound that contains carbon. a. Organic 86. This is a compound that does not contain carbon. a. Inorganic 87. This is a macromolecule that is used for energy and includes monosaccharides and polysaccharides. a. Carbohydrates 88. This is a macromolecule that is used for providing a waterproof barrier and storing long-term energy which includes fatty acids and triglycerides. a. Lipids 89. This is a macromolecule that is used for controlling the rate of reactions, transport of substances, fighting infection, and building tissues. a. Proteins 90. This is a macromolecule that is used for storing and transmitting genetic information. a. Nucleic Acids 91. This is the monomer that makes up a protein. a. Amino acid 92. This is a monomer that makes up a nucleotide and consists of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen base. a. Nucleotide 93. This is a double ringed nucleotide that includes Guanine and Adenine. a. Purine 94. This is a single ringed nucleotide that includes Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil. a. Pyrimidine 95. This is the nucleic acid that is the genetic code of a cell and is transmitted to the next generation. a. DNA 96. This is the nucleic acid that is responsible for making a copy of the genetic code within the nucleus and carrying the instructions into the cytoplasm. a. Messenger RNA 97. This is the nucleic acid that is responsible for decoding the RNA copy of the gene and transferring the amino acids to the ribosome in the correct sequence. a. Transfer RNA 98. This is the nucleic acid that is responsible for bonding the amino acids together to form a polypeptide. a. Ribosomal RNA

6 99. This is the enzyme that is responsible for adding complementary base pairs to the new strands of DNA during DNA replication. a. DNA polymerase 100. This is the enzyme that is responsible for breaking the hydrogen bonds that hold the two complementary strands of DNA together during DNA replication. a. Helicase 101. This is the process of copying the DNA sequence into the complementary sequence of RNA within the nucleus. a. Transcription 102. This is the process of bonding the correct sequence of amino acids together in order to build a protein. a. Translation 103. This is the physical expression of a specific inheritable trait. a. Phenotype 104. This is the genetic makeup of an organism that determines the expression of a specific trait. a. Genotype 105. This is a form of a gene that only requires one allele in order to be expressed in the phenotype. a. Dominant 106. This is a form of a gene that requires two alleles in order to be expressed in the phenotype. a. Recessive 107. This is an inheritance pattern in which two alleles are equally expressed in the phenotype. a. Codominance 108. This is an inheritance pattern in which two alleles are expressed in order to produce an intermediate phenotype. a. Incomplete Dominance 109. This is an inheritance pattern in which males and females have an equal chance of inheriting the trait. Both males and females must inherit two alleles in order to express the trait. a. Autosomal Recessive 110. This is an inheritance pattern in which males have a higher chance of inheriting the trait than females. Females must inherit two alleles but males only have to inherit one allele in order to express the trait. a. Sex-linked Recessive 111. This means that an individual has two identical alleles for a particular trait. a. Homozygous 112. This means that an individual has two different alleles for a particular trait. a. Heterozygous 113. This is the ability for an organism to maintain a stable internal environment. a. Homeostasis 114. This type of molecule makes up the two distinct layers of biological membranes. a. Phospholipid 115. This type of molecule is a protein that speeds up chemical reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy required for the reaction to occur. a. Enzyme 116. This is type of molecule is the major source of energy for the cell. a. ATP 117. This type of chemical bond is the strongest and forms because electrons are shared. a. Covalent 118. This type of chemical bond is the weakest and is and forms because of electric charges between molecules.

7 a. Hydrogen 119. This type of molecule is partially charged due to the unequal sharing of electrons. a. Polar 120. This is formed when atoms gain or lose electrons and therefore become electrically charged. a. Ion 121. This is formed when atoms gain or lose neutrons and therefore have a different atomic mass. a. Isotope 122. This is the property of water that allows water to rise. a. Capillary Action 123. This is the property of water that causes water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules. a. Cohesion 124. This is a solution that has a higher concentration of H + ions and a lower concentration of OH - ions. a. Acid 125. This is a solution that has a lower concentration of H + ions and a higher concentration of OH - ions. a. Base

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