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1 No. MIDTERM EXAM 2014 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark your response on your answer sheet. (1 point each) 1. Which of the following is a function of the nucleus? A. controls most of the cell s processes B. contains the information needed to make proteins C. stores DNA 2. The cells of multicellular organisms are A. specialized to perform particular functions. B. simpler than those of unicellular organisms. C. smaller than those of unicellular organisms. D. not dependent on one another. Figure The structure labeled I in Figure 7-1 is a thin, flexible barrier around a cell. It is called the A. cytoplasm. B. cell wall. C. cell envelope. D. cell membrane. 4. Safety procedures are important when working A. in the field. B. with animals. C. in a laboratory.

2 5. In the metric system, the basic unit of length is the A. millimeter. B. meter. C. centimeter. D. kilometer. 6. Gametes are produced by the process of A. replication. B. meiosis. C. crossing-over. D. mitosis. 7. A covalent bond is formed as the result of A. sharing a proton pair. B. sharing an electron pair. C. transferring protons. D. transferring electrons. 8. Scientists publish the details of important experiments so that A. their experimental procedures can be reviewed. B. others can try to reproduce the results. C. their work can be repeated. 9. To observe a small, living organism, a scientist might use a(an) A. TEM. B. compound light microscope. C. electronic balance. D. electron microscope. 10. Where are photosystems I and II found? A. in the stroma B. in the thylakoid membrane C. in the Calvin cycle 11. Which of the following is NOT a principle of the cell theory? A. Cells are the basic units of life. B. All living things are made of cells. C. Very few cells reproduce. D. All cells are produced by existing cells. 2

3 12. Cell division is represented in Figure 10-1 by the letter A. B. B. D. C. A. D. C. Figure Which of the following happens when a cell divides? A. The cell s volume increases. B. The cell has DNA overload. C. It becomes more difficult for the cell to get enough oxygen and nutrients. D. Each daughter cell receives its own copy of the parent cell s DNA. 14. What is a tumor? A. the rapidly dividing cells found at the site of a wound B. a defective p53 gene C. an accumulation of cyclins D. a mass of cancer cells 15. A solution is a(an) A. combination of two or more liquids. B. chemical reaction. C. breaking of a chemical bond. D. evenly distributed mixture of two or more substances. 16. Diffusion occurs because A. the concentration of a solution is always the same throughout a solution. B. the concentration of a solution is never the same throughout a solution. C. molecules constantly move and collide with each other. D. molecules never move or collide with each other. 3

4 17. When salt is dissolved in water, water is the A. solute. B. reactant. C. solvent. D. solution. 18. Ice floats on water because A. water shrinks when it freezes. B. water expands when it freezes. C. of cohesion. D. ice has a higher density than water. 19. Which of the following is NOT considered a safety procedure? A. Follow the textbook directions exactly. B. If in doubt about any part of an activity, trust your instincts. C. Read all the steps in your activity before doing it. D. Follow your teacher s instructions. 20. An instrument that allows light to pass through the specimen and uses two lenses to form an image is a(an) A. compound light microscope. B. electron microscope. C. SEM. D. TEM. 21. Which of the following is a phase in the cell cycle? A. G 1 phase B. G 2 phase C. M phase 22. A theory A. is the opening statement of an experiment. B. may be revised or replaced. C. is a problem to be solved. D. is always true. 23. A controlled experiment allows the scientist to isolate and test A. a mass of information. B. a single variable. C. a conclusion. D. several variables. 24. The most abundant compound in most living things is A. sugar. B. sodium chloride. C. carbon dioxide. D. water. 4

5 25. Which of these processes takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell? A. electron transport B. glycolysis C. Krebs cycle 26. Organisms that cannot make their own food and must obtain energy from the foods they eat are called A. heterotrophs. B. plants. C. thylakoids. D. autotrophs. 27. Which cell structure contains the cell s genetic material and controls the cell s activities? A. cell envelope B. organelle C. nucleus D. cytoplasm 28. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all living things? A. ability to reproduce B. ability to move C. growth and development D. response to the environment 29. Information gathered from observing a plant grow 3 cm over a two-week period results in A. inferences. B. variables. C. data. D. hypotheses. 30. Which of the following is a valid hypothesis for why a plant appears to be dying? A. The plant is being watered too much. B. The plant is not being watered enough. C. The plant is receiving too much sunlight. 31. Which statement is true? A. Simple sugars are made of polysaccharides. B. RNA molecules are made of nucleotides. C. Amino acids are made of proteins. D. Glycerol is made of fatty acids. 32. Which of the following organic compounds is the main source of energy for living things? A. proteins B. lipids C. nucleic acids D. carbohydrates 5

6 33. A monosaccharide is a A. carbohydrate. B. protein. C. lipid. D. nucleic acid. 34. What is the process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals? A. adhesion B. cohesion C. dissolving D. chemical reaction 35. Which of the following is a phase of mitosis? A. cytokinesis B. S phase C. interphase D. prophase 36. Plants gather the sun s energy with light-absorbing molecules called A. thylakoids. B. glucose. C. pigments. D. chloroplasts. 37. Which organelle would you expect to find in plant cells but not animal cells? A. mitochondrion B. chloroplast C. smooth endoplasmic reticulum D. ribosome 38. What is a product of the Calvin cycle? A. carbon dioxide gas B. oxygen gas C. high-energy sugar D. ATP 39. You won t find a cell wall in which of these kinds of organisms? A. plants B. fungi C. animals D. none of the above 40. What is the term used to describe the energy needed to get a reaction started? A. activation energy B. chemical energy C. adhesion energy D. cohesion energy 6

7 41. Which of the following is NOT a goal of science? A. to investigate and understand nature B. to use derived explanations to make useful predictions C. to explain events in nature D. to use data to support a particular point of view 42. What is the term for a group of organisms of one type living in the same place? A. environment B. population C. biosphere D. ecosystem 43. Which organelle converts food into compounds that the cell uses for growth, development, and movement? A. chloroplast B. Golgi apparatus C. mitochondrion D. endoplasmic reticulum 44. In eukaryotes, electron transport occurs in the A. cytoplasm. B. cell membrane. C. mitochondria. D. chloroplasts. 45. Unlike photosynthesis, cellular respiration occurs in A. plant cells only. B. animal cells only. C. all but plant cells. D. all eukaryotic cells. 46. Which of the following statements about a compound is true? A. The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed. B. Only the chemical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed. C. Only the physical properties of a compound are usually the same as those of the elements from which it is formed. D. The physical and chemical properties of a compound are usually very different from those of the elements from which it is formed. 47. Which of the following contains a nucleus? A. bacteria B. eukaryotes C. prokaryotes D. organelles 7

8 48. The stroma is the space that surrounds A. thylakoids. B. plant cells. C. chloroplasts. Figure The structures labeled B in Figure 10-2 are called A. centromeres. B. spindles. C. sister chromatids. D. centrioles. 50. The structure labeled A in Figure 10-2 is called the A. sister chromatid. B. centriole. C. centromere. D. spindle. 51. Prokaryotes lack A. genetic material. B. a nucleus. C. a cell membrane. D. cytoplasm. 52. An animal cell that is surrounded by fresh water will burst because the osmotic pressure causes A. solutes to move out of the cell. B. solutes to move into the cell. C. water to move out of the cell. D. water to move into the cell. 53. Who was the first person to identify and see cells? A. Matthias Schleiden B. Rudolf Virchow C. Anton van Leeuwenhoek D. Robert Hooke 8

9 54. The ability to reproduce results is an important part of any A. theory. B. experiment. C. law. D. hypothesis. 55. Which of the following is an organ of the digestive system? A. muscle cell B. nerve tissue C. stomach D. epithelial tissue 56. When enough experimental data support a hypothesis, the hypothesis becomes a(an) A. conclusion. B. fact. C. inference. D. theory. 57. Unlike the cell membrane, the cell wall is A. a flexible barrier. B. made of tough fibers. C. found in all organisms. D. composed of a lipid bilayer. 58. Which of the following is a function of the cell membrane? A. regulates which materials enter and leave the cell B. stores water, salt, proteins, and carbohydrates C. breaks down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins from foods D. keeps the cell wall in place 59. Organisms, such as plants, that make their own food are called A. heterotrophs. B. thylakoids. C. autotrophs. D. pigments. 60. The three particles that make up an atom are A. protons, neutrons, and isotopes. B. neutrons, isotopes, and electrons. C. protons, neutrons, and electrons. D. positives, negatives, and electrons. 61. What type of electron is available to form bonds? A. ionic B. valence C. nucleus D. covalent 9

10 62. When hydrogen and oxygen combine to form water, water is A. a reactant. B. neither a product nor a reactant. C. a product. D. both a product and a reactant. 63. Which of these is a product of cellular respiration? A. oxygen B. water C. glucose 64. Eukaryotes usually contain A. specialized organelles. B. a nucleus. C. genetic material. 65. Cellular respiration releases energy by breaking down A. water. B. food molecules. C. carbon dioxide. D. ATP. 66. Hypotheses may arise from A. logical inferences. B. prior knowledge. C. imaginative guesses. 67. The process by which organisms keep their internal conditions relatively stable is called A. evolution. B. photosynthesis. C. homeostasis. D. metabolism. 68. If an organism s diploid number is 12, its haploid number is A. 6. B. 3. C. 12. D Which of the following organisms are prokaryotes? A. animals B. plants C. bacteria 10

11 70. Which organelle breaks down food into particles the cell can use? A. Golgi apparatus B. endoplasmic reticulum C. lysosome D. mitochondrion 71. Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of A. haploid cells. B. body cells. C. diploid cells. D. 2N daughter cells. 72. Which structures carry out cell movement? A. cytoplasm and ribosomes B. chromosomes C. microtubules and microfilaments D. nucleolus and nucleus 73. Which organelle makes proteins using coded instructions that come from the nucleus? A. mitochondrion B. ribosome C. vacuole D. Golgi apparatus 74. The nucleus is made up of A. protons and neutrons. B. protons, neutrons, and electrons. C. protons and electrons. D. electrons and neutrons. 75. Photosynthesis uses sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into A. high-energy sugars. B. ATP and oxygen. C. oxygen and high-energy sugars. D. oxygen. 76. Where do the light-dependent reactions take place? A. only in chlorophyll molecules B. in the stroma C. outside the chloroplasts D. in the thylakoid membranes 77. Water molecules are polar, with the A. oxygen side being slightly positive and the hydrogen side being slightly negative. B. oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly positive. C. oxygen and hydrogen sides being slightly negative. D. oxygen side being slightly negative and the hydrogen side being slightly positive. 11

12 78. The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called A. facilitated diffusion. B. osmosis. C. osmotic pressure. D. active transport. 79. The work of scientists begins with A. drawing conclusions. B. creating experiments. C. careful observations. D. testing a hypothesis. 80. Solutions that contain concentrations of H + ions lower than pure water A. are acids. B. have ph values below 7. C. are bases. D. are enzymes. 81. The main function of the cell wall is to A. direct the activities of the cell. B. support and protect the cell. C. store DNA. D. help the cell move. 82. A group of cells that perform similar functions is called a(an) A. tissue. B. division of labor. C. organ. D. organ system. 83. The Calvin cycle is another name for A. photosynthesis. B. light-independent reactions. C. light-dependent reactions. 84. As a cell grows, it A. uses up food and oxygen more quickly. B. has more trouble moving enough materials across its cell membrane. C. places more demands on its DNA. 85. Which of the following structures serves as the cell s boundary from its environment? A. channel proteins B. chloroplast C. mitochondrion D. cell membrane 12

13 86. A well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations is a(an) A. controlled experiment. B. hypothesis. C. inference. D. theory. 87. What type of ion forms when an atom loses electrons? A. negative B. positive C. possibly positive or negative D. neutral 88. Which of the following makes up a molecule of water? A. one atom of sodium and one atom of chlorine B. one atom of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen C. two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen D. one atom of hydrogen and two atoms of oxygen 89. The process by which a cell divides into two daughter cells is called A. metaphase. B. cell division. C. mitosis. D. interphase. 90. Which is NOT a unit of measurement in the metric system? A. inch B. liter C. meter D. gram 91. Which of the following is an organelle found in the cytoplasm? A. cell wall B. nucleolus C. chromatin D. ribosome 92. The amount of light and temperature are examples of A. factors that affect reproduction. B. factors necessary for life. C. factors to which living things respond. D. methods of energy production. 93. In science, a hypothesis is useful only if A. it is proven correct. B. it can be proven incorrect. C. the explanation is already known. D. it can be tested. 13

14 94. Which of the following is released during cellular respiration? A. lactic acid B. oxygen C. air D. energy 95. A substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction is called a(an) A. molecule. B. element. C. lipid. D. catalyst. 96. Which of the following is NOT a function of proteins? A. control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes B. build tissues such as bone and muscle C. help to fight disease D. store and transmit heredity 97. Compared to small cells, large cells have more trouble A. moving needed materials in and waste products out. B. making copies of their DNA. C. dividing. D. producing daughter cells. 98. Which term refers to cells having different jobs in an organism? A. unicellular B. multicellular C. cell specialization D. levels of organization 99. Diffusion is the movement of molecules from A. an area of equilibrium to an area of high concentration. B. an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration. C. an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration The space surrounding the nucleus of an atom contains A. neutrons. B. electrons. C. ions. D. protons Because you may come in contact with organisms you cannot see, what safety procedure MUST be followed? A. Open the windows of the laboratory. B. Do not wear long sleeves. C. Read over your activity. D. Wash your hands thoroughly after completing the activity. 14

15 102. The basic unit of mass in SI is the A. kilogram. B. ounce. C. meter. D. liter Which of the following is NOT found in the nucleus? A. chromatin B. DNA C. cytoplasm D. nucleolus 104. Which of the following is a function of the cytoskeleton? A. contains DNA B. surrounds the cell C. helps make proteins D. helps a cell keep its shape 105. The cell cycle is the A. time from prophase until cytokinesis. B. period of time between the birth and the death of a cell. C. time it takes for one cell to undergo mitosis. D. series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide Which of the following terms describes a substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in definite proportions? A. compound B. nucleus C. enzyme D. isotope 107. Cellular respiration is called an aerobic process because it requires A. light. B. glucose. C. oxygen. D. exercise The first phase of mitosis is called A. metaphase. B. prophase. C. anaphase. D. interphase Which of the following terms includes all the others? A. biologist B. zoologist C. botanist D. ecologist 15

16 110. An organ system is a group of organs that A. work together to perform a specific function. B. are made up of similar cells. C. work together to perform all the functions in a multicellular organism. D. are made up of similar tissues Which of the following is NOT a part of an ATP molecule? A. chlorophyll B. phosphate C. adenine D. ribose 112. What is shown in Figure 11-3? A. anaphase I of meiosis B. replication C. independent assortment D. crossing-over 113. is the study of A. the land, water, and air on Earth. B. the environment. C. the living world. D. animals and plants only. Figure The energy of the electrons passing along the electron transport chain is used to make A. ATP. B. alcohol. C. lactic acid. D. citric acid Which of the following is an example of an organ? A. nerve cell B. heart C. digestive system D. epithelial tissue 16

17 116. The products of photosynthesis are the A. products of cellular respiration. B. reactants of fermentation. C. reactants of cellular respiration. D. products of glycolysis Isotopes are atoms of the same element with the same number of protons and A. the same number of neutrons. B. a different number of electrons. C. a different number of molecules. D. a different number of neutrons A substance with a ph of 6 is called A. an acid. B. neither an acid nor a base. C. both an acid and a base. D. a base Enzymes affect the reactions in living cells by changing the A. temperature of the reaction. B. ph of the reaction. C. speed of the reaction. D. products of the reaction Unlike mitosis, meiosis results in the formation of A. four genetically identical cells. B. two genetically different cells. C. two genetically identical cells. D. four genetically different cells. 17

18 ID: B MIDTERM EXAM 2014 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. D 2. A 3. D 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. B 8. D 9. B 10. B 11. C 12. B 13. D 14. D 15. D 16. C 17. C 18. B 19. B 20. A 21. D 22. B 23. B 24. D 25. B 26. A 27. C 28. B 29. C 30. D 31. B 32. D 33. A 34. D 35. D 36. C 37. B 38. C 39. C 1

19 ID: B 40. A 41. D 42. B 43. C 44. C 45. D 46. D 47. B 48. A 49. C 50. C 51. B 52. D 53. D 54. B 55. C 56. D 57. B 58. A 59. C 60. C 61. B 62. C 63. B 64. D 65. B 66. D 67. C 68. A 69. C 70. C 71. A 72. C 73. B 74. A 75. C 76. D 77. D 78. B 79. C 80. C 81. B 82. A 83. B 84. D 2

20 ID: B 85. D 86. D 87. B 88. C 89. B 90. A 91. D 92. C 93. D 94. D 95. D 96. D 97. A 98. C 99. C 100. B 101. D 102. A 103. C 104. D 105. D 106. A 107. C 108. B 109. A 110. A 111. A 112. D 113. C 114. A 115. B 116. C 117. D 118. A 119. C 120. D 3