Biology Mid-Term Study Guide

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1 Name: Date: Chapter 1: The Science of Biology 1. List the 8 characteristics of all living things: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 2. What is biology? 3. What is homeostasis? 4. Define sexual and asexual reproduction. Biology Mid-Term Study Guide Experimental Design 5. Read the experimental design and answer the questions: Cars get better gas mileage when their tires are properly inflated. Sayeema wanted to test if this was true, so she filled the gasoline tank in her car, inflated the tires to the car maker s suggested pressure, drove her car, and then calculated the miles per gallon. The next time she filled the car s tank with gasoline, she reduced the pressure of air in her tires. Once again she drove the car over the same roads and calculated the miles per gallon. She tried the process again with tires that were inflated a little more than the suggested pressure. a. What is the problem/question? b. What is the experimental variable? c. What is the dependent variable? 6. Ethan filled 10 cups of the same size with equal amounts of water. He divided the cups into five groups of two cups each. The groups were placed in five different locations around his house. After two weeks, he measured the remaining water to determine how much had evaporated, by measuring how much water remained in each cup. a. What is the problem/question? b. What is the experimental variable? c. What was the dependent variable? d. What conditions/variables were kept constant during the experiment? 1

2 Microscopes 1. Label the diagram of the microscope. 2. What is the function of the following parts of the microscope? a. diaphragm: b. coarse adjustment: c. fine adjustment: d. stage clips: e. eyepiece f. scanning objective Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life 1. Give the location and charges of the 3 subatomic particles in an atom. 2. What is a polar molecule? Why is water a polar molecule? Name a few of the special characteristics of water. 3. What is an isotope? 4. What is the atomic number of an atom? What is the atomic mass of an atom? 5. What is the ph scale? Draw the scale and show where acids and bases are located. 6. What is a catalyst? 2

3 Organic Chemistry: 1. What is an organic compound? 2. Fill out the following table about organic compounds: Organic Compound Monomer Examples Where is it found in the body Protein Carbohydrate Lipid a. Saturated b. Unsaturated Nucleic Acid 3. What is an enzyme? 4. What is the lock and key model of enzyme activity? Use the following terms in your description (active site, enzyme, products, substrate). 5. For each of the following statements, label as true or false a. Enzymes are types of proteins b. Enzymes slow down the rate of chemical reactions c. Each enzyme is specific, it only works on one type of substance d. Enzymes become denatured (melt) at high temperatures e. Enzymes work best at a narrow ph range f. Enzymes can not be reused. g. Proteins are made of building blocks called amino acids h. Proteins are made in the mitochondria of cells i. Proteins make up our blood, hair, skin, heart, muscles, and bones Chapter 7: Cell Structure and Function 1. What is a cell? 2. What are the three parts of the cell theory? 3. What is a prokaryotic cell? What is a eukaryotic cell? 4. What are three differences between a plant cell and an animal cell? 3

4 5. Matching: Next to each organelle, write the letter of its function mitochondria cell membrane cell wall endoplasmic reticulum nucleus vacuole chloroplasts ribosome a. where proteins are made b. site of photosynthesis in plants, contains chlorophyll c. transport system of the cell d. provides support and protection for plant cell e. storage area for the cells f. powerhouse of the cell, makes energy h. control center of the cell, contains the genetic information i. is selectively permeable, controls what goes in and out of the cell 6. Explain the function of the Golgi apparatus, lysosome, and cytoskeleton. 7. Outline the path a protein takes from the ER to the outside of the cell. 8. Label the diagrams of the cells below: Animal Cell: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. Plant Cell: A. B. C. D. E. F. 4

5 9. What does selectively permeable mean? 10. What types of organic molecules make up a cell membrane? 11. What is the function of the cell membrane? 12. What is diffusion? 13. What is equilibrium? 14. What is osmosis? 15. What is active transport? 16. What type of organic molecule is needed for active transport? 17. What is endocytosis and exocytosis? 18. What is the difference between diffusion and active transport? Chapter 8 & 9: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration 1. Define photosynthesis. 2. What is the equation for photosynthesis? 3. Where does photosynthesis occur? 4. What type of organisms carry out photosynthesis? 5. What is the most important energy molecule in organisms? 6. Does respiration require oxygen? 7. What is the equation for cellular respiration? 8. Where does respiration occur in the cell? 5

6 Chapter 10: Cell Reproduction 1. What is a chromosome? 2. What is mitosis? 3. What is a centromere? 4. Write the following stages of mitosis in order: Telophase, metaphase, interphase, prophase, anaphase 5. What are the 3 parts of interphase? What happens in each one? Draw a picture next to the description on the left for each stage of mitosis INTERPHASE Longest stage Nucleolus and nuclear membrane disappear Chromosomes look like tangled threads Centrioles together PROPHASE Chromosomes pair up Centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell METAPHASE Chromosomes line up in the middle Of the cell ANAPHASE Chromosome pairs pull apart and move To opposite sides of the cell TELOPHASE The chromosomes are at opposite sides Of the cell Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappears a. What happens during cytokinesis? b. What is different with cytokinesis in plant cells? 6

7 Chapter 11: Fundamentals of Genetics 1. Define the following terms: Homozygous Heterozygous Dominant Recessive Genotype Phenotype Hybrid Allele 2. What is the principle of dominance? 3. What are genes and where are they located? 4. What is codominance? Give an example of a trait that is codominant. 5. What is incomplete dominance? Give an example. 6. Who was Gregor Mendel? What did he study? 7. What are homologous chromosomes? 8. What does diploid mean? Give the diploid number for humans. 9. What does haploid mean? Give the haploid number for humans. 10. What is meiosis? 11. What are gametes? 12. What are the steps of meiosis? List and describe them. 13. What are the differences between mitosis and meiosis? 7

8 Use Punnett squares to solve the following crosses. a. Tall (T) is dominant over short (t) in pea plants. A homozygous tall pea plant is crossed with a short pea plant. What are the probable genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring? b. Two heterozygous tall pea plants are crossed. What are the probable phenotypes and genotypes of the offspring produced? c. Two tall pea plants are crossed and all the offspring are short. Is this possible? Explain your answer and show a Punnett square. d. Dad is normal and mom is a carrier for Duchenne s Muscular Dystrophy a sexlinked disease. What percent of the male children can get muscular dystrophy? e. A particular type of chicken can have three phenotypes for feathers. Normal Feathers (FF), Curly feathers (Ff), feather shedder (ff) (one who loses feathers easily). What type of inheritance is this? Which cross would produce only Curly feathered offspring? Be able to do the following: Graph data properly, know all the important parts of a graph Complete Punnett Squares and provide genotype and phenotype ratios Calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom Understand the ph scale 8

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