Biology Fall Semester Exam Review. Unit 1: Scientific method, characteristics of life What are the characteristics of life (pg. 6)

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1 Biology Fall Semester Exam Review Unit 1: Scientific method, characteristics of life What are the characteristics of life (pg. 6) Define the following terms: biology observation hypothesis dependent variable independent variable control group theory cell homeostasis reproduction metabolism Unit 2: Ecology Define the following terms: ecology population community ecosystem habitat consumers decomposers omnivores biomes Study the food chain below:

2 Use the food web above to answer the following questions. What are producers? List examples from the food web. What are herbivores? List examples from the food web. What are carnivores? List example from the food web. Use the energy pyramid below to answer the following questions. Where are the producers found? What is each level called? Explain what happens to the number and kind of organisms as you go up the pyramid? How much energy is passed up in each level? The remaining energy is lost as What is primary succession. Give an example What is secondary succession? Give two examples Define the following terms. Give an example of each. predation parasitism commensalism p364 mutualism p364 Organisms that are after the same resource are in What are things a good habitat needs? What are abiotic factors? List two. What are biotic factors? List two. Unit 3 Review: Biodiversity Define the following terms adaptation mutation gradualism homologous structures Explain the following mechanisms for evolution ( ) Mutation Natural selection

3 Who was Charles Darwin? ( ) Describe Darwin s observations regarding different species of finches on the Galapagos Islands? Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection (what must occur? Pg 280) How do the following evidences of evolution explain how they support change over time: Fossils how could you tell which species is the oldest by looking at layers of fossils? homologies developmental-embryonic growth molecular-amino acid sequence and data anatomical-physical structure biogeography Use the amino acid sequence comparison chart: Which species are most related? Which species are least related? Amino Acid # Species A Species B Species C 1 Tyr Asp Val 2 Tyr Val Val 3 Tyr Tyr Tyr 4 Asp Asp Asp Using the image below: Which organisms have the most homologies? Rayfinned fish and mammals, frogs and turtles, or crocodiles and birds? Taxonomy What is taxonomy? What is the advantage of our scientific naming system? How is a scientific name written? Put into order from most general to most specific: family, genus, order, class, domain, species, phylum, kingdom What are the 6 kingdoms? What are the major characteristics of each kingdom? Unit 4: Building Blocks of Life Biochemistry What are the four kinds of macromolecules? What kind of macromolecule is sugar? Carbohydrates are chains of. Proteins are chains of Nucleic acids are chains of What are the two types of nucleic acids?

4 Enzymes What is activation energy? What is an enzyme? What four factors alter enzyme activity? Unit 5: Cells Cells Why are cells small? What are the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Explain the function of the following cell structures: Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic reticulum Cell membrane Lysosomes Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplast Cell wall Central Vacuole Flagella What organelles are only found in plant cells? What is an example of a prokaryotic cell? Label the diagram: Cell Transport Compare and contrast the characteristics of passive and active transport? What is the difference between diffusion and osmosis? What is facilitated diffusion? What is the difference between hypotonic/ hypertonic/ isotonic? What is endocytosis? What is the difference between phagocytosis and pinocytosis? What is exocytosis? Unit 6: Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, and Systems Chapter 5 Where does most of the energy Earth come from? How do most autotrophs obtain energy? How do heterotrophs obtain energy? What is ATP? What happens during photosynthesis? What is the equation for photosynthesis? What is the primary pigment involved in photosynthesis? Why is chlorophyll green?

5 What happens during cellular respiration? What is the equation for cellular respiration? Where does cellular respiration take place? What is aerobic respiration? What is anaerobic respiration? Fermentation happens under aerobic/ anaerobic conditions. What are the two kinds of fermentation? What kind happens in our muscles? Do cells produce more or less ATP in the presence of oxygen? Why do plants have mitochondria if they can make their own food? How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration connected? Systems: Human/Plant What is the function of the circulatory system? Describe the function of the following structures: veins capillaries arteries heart What is the function of the respiratory system? What are red blood cells? Describe the function of the following structures: Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lungs Alveoli What is the function of the digestive systems? Describe the function of the following structures? Nose/Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Draw a plant and label the following structures and describe their role Roots, Stem, Leaves Stomata and Guard cells Xylem Phloem Cuticle

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