2. Draw two water molecules. Using a dotted line, show a hydrogen bond that could form between them.

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1 Biology Final Review Packet Directions: Answer the questions below. You may use any notes, worksheets, or your textbook to find the answers. The questions are divided up based on the different units we have covered throughout the course. Biochemistry Explain the difference between ionic and covalent bonds. Draw two water molecules. Using a dotted line, show a hydrogen bond that could form between them. What does it mean for water to be polar? 4. Define the properties of water known as cohesion and adhesion. 5. Draw the ph scale. Label where acidic, neutral, and basic substances would fall on the scale. 6. List the four necessary elements of life. Circle the one element that by definition is necessary in organic compounds. 7. Define a monomer. Define a polymer. Give an example of each. 8. Complete the table below regarding the four groups of organic compounds found in living things: Organic Compound Monomer Polymer Function Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Nucleic Acid 9. What is an enzyme and how does it function? 10. Explain how factors such as ph, temperature, and concentration levels can affect enzyme function.

2 Biology Final Review Packet P a g e 2 Cell Physiology 1 Complete the Venn diagram comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Prokaryote Eukaryote Example: Example: 1 What is the function of each of the following structures: a. Cell membrane b. Nucleus c. Ribosomes d. Mitochondria e. Endoplasmic Reticulum f. Lysosomes g. Vacuole 1 Differentiate between plant and animal cells. Make sure to answer the following questions: a. What is the outer boundary of each? b. What are the support structures of each? c. What organelles do plant cells have that animal cells do not? What organelles do animal cells have that plants do not? 14. Arrange the following levels of organization in a multicellular organism from simplest to most complex: tissue, organism, organ, cell, organ system 15. Draw a phospholipid molecule and explain how it is arranged to form the lipid bilayer in cell membranes.

3 Biology Final Review Packet P a g e Relate/Compare/Contrast the following groups of terms: a. Osmosis/ Diffusion / Facilitated diffusion b. Active Transport/ Passive Transport 17. What would happen to an animal cell in each of the following solutions: a. Hypertonic b. Hypotonic c. Isotonic 18. Explain homeostasis. Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Cell Respiration) 19. Compare and contrast ADP and ATP. 20. Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis. 2 Write the chemical equation for cellular respiration. 2 Complete the following table comparing photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Process Name of organelle involved Sketch of organelle involved Type of cell the process occurs in (plant/animal) Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration 2 What is chlorophyll and how does it help to make most plants green? 24. Compare the amount of ATP produced in aerobic and anaerobic respiration. 25. List the two types of anaerobic respiration (fermentation).

4 Biology Final Review Packet P a g e 4 Genetics 26. Describe what is taking place during each of the parts of Interphase (G 1, S, and G 2 ). 27. List the correct order of phases in mitosis and state what significant events occur during each phase. 28. Complete the following table comparing mitosis and meiosis: Process # of divisions # of cells formed Type of cells formed (haploid/diploid) Mitosis Type of cells formed (somatic/gamete) When/why does the process occur Meiosis 29. What is an advantage to sexual reproduction/meiosis/crossing over? 30. What is the relationship between DNA and the proteins in your body? 3 Compare and contrast DNA and RNA. Be sure to state at least two things they have in common. In terms of their differences include the sugars contained, the shape, and the nitrogen bases contained. 3 A DNA molecule has a sequence of TAGCAG. What is the sequence of its complementary DNA strand? 3 A DNA molecule has a sequence of TTCAGT. (a) What is the sequence of an mrna strand? (b) What amino acids would be called for? 34. How many nitrogen bases are included in one codon? What does an mrna codon code for? 35. Arrange the following terms in the correct order for protein synthesis: RNA, protein, trait, DNA 36. Where does transcription take place in the cell? Where does translation take place in the cell? 37. What is the product of transcription? What is the product of translation? 38. Define the following terms: a. Homozygous (purebred) d. Phenotype g. Gene b. Heterozygous (hybrid) e. Dominant h. Karyotype c. Genotype f. Recessive i. Pedigree

5 Biology Final Review Packet P a g e Who is Gregor Mendel? What did he study? 40. What is a Punnett square and what does it show? 4 In humans, unattached earlobes are dominant (E) to attached earlobes (e). Summarize the genotypic and phenotypic ratios for each of the following crosses: a. EE X EE c. ee X ee e. Ee X Ee b. EE X ee d. Ee X EE f. Ee X ee 4 Define the following patterns of inheritance: a. Complete dominance b. Incomplete dominance c. Codominance d. Polygenetic e. Multiple alleles 4 Why are X-linked disorders more common in males than females? 44. Sketch a pedigree in which a trait or disorder is passed in a dominant manner. 45. Discuss Down Syndrome and nondisjunction. 46. Explain the difference between a point mutation and a frame shift mutation. Given this sequence of DNA, show an example of each: AAT GCT ACT Embryology 47. What is a fertilized egg cell called? 48. Name and sketch the 4 embryo stages associated with early embryonic development. 49. What is the difference between implantation and gastrulation? 50. What is cell differentiation and when does it occur in a developing organism?

6 Biology Final Review Packet P a g e 6 5 What is the first body system that develops within a growing embryo? 5 What are stem cells? 5 What is the role of the placenta? Microbiology 54. What is the germ theory? 55. Describe the structure of a virus. What is it made up of? 56. What is a vaccine and how do they work? 57. What type of cells are bacteria and how do they reproduce? 58. Describe the 3 main shapes of bacterial cells. 59. Name two ways in which bacteria can be beneficial/helpful. 60. Explain antibiotic resistance. 6 Draw a Venn diagram comparing viruses and bacteria. Viruses Bacteria

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