1 Biology Bio-: life -ology: study of What is life?
2 Experiment time!!! Is this alive? The Atlanta Zoo, has announced that it is considering opening a protist exhibit, has been offered an item that its discoverer claims is a protist that came from the Savannah River. However, the discoverer is suspected of having been involved in money-making scams in the past. The Zoo Board has learned that all protists meet the six characteristics of living organisms and is asking for students to observe the item to help the zoo determine whether or not the unknown item is a biotic organism and worthy of display at the Atlanta Zoo. Because it is unknown what its effects are on the human body at this time, PPEs will be used during testing.
3 Is it alive????? Everyone write down your observations: 5 observations why it might be alive 5 observations why it might not be a live
4 Are you ready? What is your conclusion???
5 5. It has complex chemistry 6 characteristics of life 1. It responds to the environment 2. It grows and develops 3. It produces offspring 4. It maintains homeostasis
6 Do you give up? Let s do the experiment again Does it respond to the environment? Does It grow and develop? Does It produce offspring? Does It maintain homeostasis? Does It have complex chemistry? Does it consist of cells?
7 Some useful terms Biotic- living things Abiotic- nonliving things Homeostasis-the maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism (balance) Cells-the most basic unit of life
8 Some useful terms DNA- molecule that carries genetic information Fitness- the ability to survive and reproduce adaptations-an inherited trait that gives an advantage to individual organisms and is passed onto future generations
10 The scientific method
11 Taxonomic classification A hierarchical system that is used to classify organisms at the species level Created by botanist Carl Linnaeus Linnaean taxonomy for categorization binomial nomenclature for naming
12 Taxonomic classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Dear King Phillip Came Over For Green Spaghetti
16 Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukaryota
17 Kingdoms Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Archaebacteria Eubacteria
18 Other taxonomic groups. Like phylum, class, order, family, genus, species; have too many groups to name them all.
19 Classification of North American Black bear Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Eukaryota Animalia Chordata Mamalia Carnivora Ursidae Ursus americanus
20 You Try it! Take out your phones! In your notes pick your favorite plant/animal/bacteria/fungi/protist Write each taxonomic group for that organism Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species When you re done, raise your hand and I will
21 This brings me to Binomial Nomenclature - 2 terms are used to denote a species of living organisms - 1st word= Genus - 2nd word= species. Both words make a species scientific
22 How do you write a scientific name? Glad you asked because it is one of my PET PEEVES! First: if you are typing a scientific name, it is italicized If you are hand writing the name it is underlined YOUR HANDWRITING CAN NOT BE ITALICIZED SO DON T EVEN TRY IT Second: The first letter of the first word (Genus) is ALWAYS capitalized
23 Daily Question 1. What are the 4 rules to writing a scientific name? 2. Write the scientific name of the Koala bear correctly: cinereus phascolarctos
24 For example: Racoon 9 banded Armadillo Tiger Opossum Holland lop rabbit (Mopsy)
25 Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Main distinction is: Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles Prokaryotes DON T have membrane bound organelles
26 Number of chromosomes Eukaryotic Cell More than one Prokaryotic Cell One but not true chromosome (plasmid) Nucleus Present Absent Cell type Usually multicellular Usually unicellular example plants/animals Bacteria/Archaea lysosomes/peroxisome s present absent microtubules present absent/rare Endoplasmic reticulum present absent
27 mitochondria present absent cytoskeleton present absent ribosomes Present (larger) Present (smaller) vesicles present present Golgi apparatus present absent chloroplasts present(plants absent flagella Permeability of nuclear membrane Composed as doublets surrounding 2 singlets selective Composed of only 1 fiber Not present
28 Cell wall Only in plants/fungi (chemically simple) Chemically complex vacuoles present present Cell size um 1-10um
30 Unicellular vs multicellular Unicellular- consist of one cellgenerally simple organisms Multicellular- consist of many cells- generally complex organisms What are some advantages to being multicellular than unicellular? - Organism can be larger - Cell differentiation (different types of cells with different functions) - Organism can be more complex
31 Unicellular Example organisms: bacteria, Archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi
32 Multicellular Example organisms: fungi, animals, plants, algae
33 Asexual vs Sexual reproduction Asexual- not involving the fusion of gametes; only one parent is involved; offspring are identical to the parent Sexual- combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes); fusion of gametes; offspring are a mixture of the two parents
34 meiosis Cellular division Asexual Fision Budding Regeneration Sexual
36 budding Organisms like proteins, yeast, and some viruses an entirely new organism grows on an existing one Unlike fission, this is not brought about by the separation of an existing organism into partial entities. The developing organism begins its life as an entirely separate life form from its parent, separating into an autonomous entity only when it has fully matures.
38 Vegetative reproduction Organisms: flowering plants Produce tiny pants (plantlets) at the tips of elongated stems that can take root and grow into independent plant Also horizontal stems Ex; strawberry plants- send out long trailing stems called stolons that produce roots when they touch the ground
40 fragmentation Segmented worms and many echinoderms An organism physically splits and develops new, genetically identical organisms out of each segment Segments rapidly grow new cells to constitute their muscle fiber and internal
42 Binary fission Bacterium has grown so that it has nearly doubled in size Dna replicates and divides in half producing two identical daughter cells Does not involve exchange or recombination of genetic information
44 Venn diagram Create a venn diagram comparing and contrasting asexual and sexual reproduction Include: Evolution What organisms it's found in
45 advantages/disadvantages Now that you know a few things about asexual and sexual reproduction: what are some advantages and disadvantages of both?
46 Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic Autotrophic- organisms that make their own foodplants, algae, some protozoa and some bacteria Heterotrophic- organism that cannot make its own food and instead obtains its energy from eating other organisms- all animals, protozoa, fungi, and most bacteria
49 autotrophs Photosynthesis- the use of sunlight to synthesize food from carbon dioxide and water- involves use of chlorophyll and produces oxygen as a byproduct
50 Autotrophs Chemosynthesis-use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food- used in deep-sea communities where no sunlight is available- different species use different pathways Ex: chemosynthetic bacterial communities- found in hot springs on land and on sea floor around hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale carcasses, and sunken ships
53 Phylogeny vocab. Phylogenetic tree- diagram showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among species; proportional to amount of evolutionary time and change Cladogram- branching diagram showing cladistic relationship between species Clade- a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor
55 Phylogeny vocab. Monophyletic-(clade) consists of ancestor and all of its descendants Polyphyletic- consists of descendants and not all of the ancestors Paraphyletic- includes an ancestor but not all of its descendants
57 Phylogeny vocab. Autapomorphy- a distinctive feature (derived trait) that is unique to 1 given taxon Synapomorphy- derived trait shared by 2 or more groups Apomorphy- a specialized or derived character state Plesiomorphy- ancestral/primitive trait
Name Class Date Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity (pages 447-450) Key Concepts How are living things organized for study? What is binomial nomenclature? What is Linnaeus s system of classification?
Characteristics of Living Things Card Sort All of these terms are characteristics of organisms that allow scientists to classify (organize) them into groups. Chapter 9 in your text covers the characteristics
Finding Order in Diversity Videos Scishow Taxonomy: https://youtu.be/f38bmgpcz_i Bozeman Taxonomy: https://youtu.be/tyl_8gv7rie Terms to Know 1. Radiometric Dating 12. Miller and Urey s 2. Geologic Time
Biology Classification Unit 11 11:1 Classification and Taxonomy CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics TAXONOMY: the science of classifying living things
Taxonomy Taxonomy Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms. It has two main purposes: to identify organisms to represent relationships among organisms Binomial Nomenclature Our present biological
18.3 Building the Tree of Life Changing Ideas About Kingdoms This diagram shows some of the ways in which organisms have been classified into kingdoms since the 1700s. Three Domains Genetic analysis has
Name: Period: Biology Test Review: Classification/Taxonomy MAKE SURE YOUR BOOKLET IS COMPLETELY FINISHED! If you are missing information, it can be found on your teacher s webpage. I. Definitions Try to
Classifying Organisms What are living things, and how can they be classified? binomial nomenclature species genus dichotomous key cladogram Classifying Living Things Classification: organizing information
The Tree of Life Chapter 17 1 17.1 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms 2000 years ago Aristotle Grouped plants and animals Based on structural similarities Greeks and Romans included
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MCAT Biology - Problem Drill 09: Prokaryotes and Fungi Question No. 1 of 10 Instructions: (1) Read the problem and answer choices carefully; (2) Work the problems on paper as needed; (3) Pick the correct
Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms Click on a lesson name to select. Early Systems of Classification Biologists use a system of classification
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Unit 7 Classification & Plants What you Need to Know: Classification: Classification, Taxonomy, Binomial Nomenclature + Scientific Names, Kingdoms, Cladograms, Kingdoms and Domains // Characteristics of
Binomial Nomenclature 1a A two-part scientific naming system using Latin words. Written in italics with Genus capitalized and species portion lower case. Ex. Quercus alba 1b Clade 2a A clade is a group
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Name: _ Due Date: _ Per: _ Unit 4.2 Study Guide Directions: Complete all sections to the best of your ability. On the day of the Quiz (the due date for this assignment) turn this in with all of your Unit
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Classification of Living Things Test Review #1 What is taxonomy? a. the scientific study of how living things are classified b. the name of Aristotle s classification system c. the process used by geologists
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Biology 11 Taxonomy Objectives By the end of the lesson you should be able to: OState the levels of classification and the man who created the classification system ODescribe the 3 domains and the 4 kingdoms
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NAME: Biology Study Guide VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW (+5 for making flashcards) asexual reproduction autotroph binary fission binomial nomenclature carnivore cell cilia classification conjugation decomposer
Domains and Kingdoms Archaea Ancient Bacteria Bacteria Regular Bacteria Eukaryota Organisms with a nucleus DOMAIN: Archaea KINGDOM: Archaebacteria Cell Type Structural Organization Cell Wall Mode of Nutrition
CLASSIFICATION Similarities and Differences TEKS 8A: Students will define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standard system to the scientific community 8B: Students will categorize organisms using
UNIT 2 BIODIVERSITY Chapter 4- Patterns of Life Biology 2201 Characteristics of Life All living things share some basic characteristics: 1) living things are organized systems made up of one or more cells
KEY CONCEPT Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. Linnaeus developed the scientific naming system still used today. Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. White
Learner Profile: Communicators Monday, September 28 AGENDA 15 min Enter the classroom silently and find your seat. 1. Take out pencils, HAWK card, agenda, and classification notes 2. Everything else gets
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Station 1 Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities: 2. Breeding behavior: 3. Geographical distribution: 4. Chromosome
Choose a category. You will be given the answer. You must give the correct question. Click to begin. Click here for Final Jeopardy Classify This For Cell Gene Gene the Dancin Machine Cycles & Changes Feed
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Topic #1: Taxonomy 1) What is taxonomy? system of naming and classifying organisms 2) Name the eight levels of taxonomic categories, starting with the most general and ending with the most specific. Domain,
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http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/cell/cell.html 4A: Students will compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Robert Hooke (1665) Used a compound microscope to look at thin slices of cork (oak
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Section 3: The most widely used biological classification system has six kingdoms within three domains. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the major characteristics
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Classification Systems - Taxonomy Why Classify? 2.5 million kinds of organisms Not complete- 20 million organisms estimated Must divide into manageable groups To work with the diversity of life we need
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CELL PART Expanded Definition Cell Structure Illustration Function Summary Location is the material that contains the Carry genetic ALL CELLS information that determines material inherited characteristics.
Unit 9 Test Review KEY a. Explain the history, purpose, and methods of taxonomy What is taxonomy? the science of naming and classifying organisms Who came up with it? Linnaeus Why do we use taxonomy? Scientific
6.12: lassification of Organisms Name: ate: 1 2 3 What s In Name? Lexile 870L Shakespeare famously wrote in Romeo and Juliet, What s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as
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Name: Period: Date: Biology Mid-Year Review Packet This packet will be collected on the day of the exam for 2 HOMEWORK GRADES. Topics: Observations & Inferences Making A Hypothesis Characteristics of Life
LS CH 7 practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic that all living things share? a. a cellular
nswers to Practice Items Question 1 TEKS 4 This is a picture of a bacteria cell. This is a picture of a plant cell. This is the correct answer. This picture is representative of a virus. This is a picture
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MONTGOMERY COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Biology Curriculum Pacing Guide 1 st 9 Weeks SOL Objectives Vocabulary 7 Days 14 Days BIO.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific reasoning, logic,
Chapter 1 Scientific Study of Life Copyright McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. 2012 No reproduction Pearson or Education, distribution without Inc. the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
What You ll Learn Day 1 1. Organisms are living things. 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells. 3. There are two main types of cells: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic A cell is the basic unit and structure
Classification = the grouping of objects or organisms based on a set of criteria. i TAXONOMY = A branch of biology that groups and names organisms. I. History A. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Greek philosopher
Introduction to the Kingdoms of Life Table of Contents Section 2 Advent of Multicellularity Section 3 Complex Multicellularity The Six Kingdoms of Life Living organisms are divided into six kingdoms and
What is Life? Bacteria to Plants - Ch 1 Living Things aka: organisms What are the six characteristics of living things? - briefly describe each What are the major chemicals found in cells? Do organisms
Table of Contents Chapter: Life's Structure and Classification Section 1: Living Things 1- What is an organism? Any living thing is called an organism. Organisms vary in size: 1)one-celled or unicellular
CHAPTER 11 2 s and Kingdoms SECTION Classification 7.1.a, 7.3.d California Science Standards BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Which domains are