Biology. Bio-: life -ology: study of What is life?

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1 Biology Bio-: life -ology: study of What is life?

2 Experiment time!!! Is this alive? The Atlanta Zoo, has announced that it is considering opening a protist exhibit, has been offered an item that its discoverer claims is a protist that came from the Savannah River. However, the discoverer is suspected of having been involved in money-making scams in the past. The Zoo Board has learned that all protists meet the six characteristics of living organisms and is asking for students to observe the item to help the zoo determine whether or not the unknown item is a biotic organism and worthy of display at the Atlanta Zoo. Because it is unknown what its effects are on the human body at this time, PPEs will be used during testing.

3 Is it alive????? Everyone write down your observations: 5 observations why it might be alive 5 observations why it might not be a live

4 Are you ready? What is your conclusion???

5 5. It has complex chemistry 6 characteristics of life 1. It responds to the environment 2. It grows and develops 3. It produces offspring 4. It maintains homeostasis

6 Do you give up? Let s do the experiment again Does it respond to the environment? Does It grow and develop? Does It produce offspring? Does It maintain homeostasis? Does It have complex chemistry? Does it consist of cells?

7 Some useful terms Biotic- living things Abiotic- nonliving things Homeostasis-the maintenance of constant internal conditions in an organism (balance) Cells-the most basic unit of life

8 Some useful terms DNA- molecule that carries genetic information Fitness- the ability to survive and reproduce adaptations-an inherited trait that gives an advantage to individual organisms and is passed onto future generations

9

10 The scientific method

11 Taxonomic classification A hierarchical system that is used to classify organisms at the species level Created by botanist Carl Linnaeus Linnaean taxonomy for categorization binomial nomenclature for naming

12 Taxonomic classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Dear King Phillip Came Over For Green Spaghetti

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15 ads/forms/taxonomy_hw.pdf

16 Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukaryota

17 Kingdoms Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Archaebacteria Eubacteria

18 Other taxonomic groups. Like phylum, class, order, family, genus, species; have too many groups to name them all.

19 Classification of North American Black bear Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Eukaryota Animalia Chordata Mamalia Carnivora Ursidae Ursus americanus

20 You Try it! Take out your phones! In your notes pick your favorite plant/animal/bacteria/fungi/protist Write each taxonomic group for that organism Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, class, order, family, genus, species When you re done, raise your hand and I will

21 This brings me to Binomial Nomenclature - 2 terms are used to denote a species of living organisms - 1st word= Genus - 2nd word= species. Both words make a species scientific

22 How do you write a scientific name? Glad you asked because it is one of my PET PEEVES! First: if you are typing a scientific name, it is italicized If you are hand writing the name it is underlined YOUR HANDWRITING CAN NOT BE ITALICIZED SO DON T EVEN TRY IT Second: The first letter of the first word (Genus) is ALWAYS capitalized

23 Daily Question 1. What are the 4 rules to writing a scientific name? 2. Write the scientific name of the Koala bear correctly: cinereus phascolarctos

24 For example: Racoon 9 banded Armadillo Tiger Opossum Holland lop rabbit (Mopsy)

25 Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Main distinction is: Eukaryotes have membrane bound organelles Prokaryotes DON T have membrane bound organelles

26 Number of chromosomes Eukaryotic Cell More than one Prokaryotic Cell One but not true chromosome (plasmid) Nucleus Present Absent Cell type Usually multicellular Usually unicellular example plants/animals Bacteria/Archaea lysosomes/peroxisome s present absent microtubules present absent/rare Endoplasmic reticulum present absent

27 mitochondria present absent cytoskeleton present absent ribosomes Present (larger) Present (smaller) vesicles present present Golgi apparatus present absent chloroplasts present(plants absent flagella Permeability of nuclear membrane Composed as doublets surrounding 2 singlets selective Composed of only 1 fiber Not present

28 Cell wall Only in plants/fungi (chemically simple) Chemically complex vacuoles present present Cell size um 1-10um

29

30 Unicellular vs multicellular Unicellular- consist of one cellgenerally simple organisms Multicellular- consist of many cells- generally complex organisms What are some advantages to being multicellular than unicellular? - Organism can be larger - Cell differentiation (different types of cells with different functions) - Organism can be more complex

31 Unicellular Example organisms: bacteria, Archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi

32 Multicellular Example organisms: fungi, animals, plants, algae

33 Asexual vs Sexual reproduction Asexual- not involving the fusion of gametes; only one parent is involved; offspring are identical to the parent Sexual- combining genetic information from two individuals of different types (sexes); fusion of gametes; offspring are a mixture of the two parents

34 meiosis Cellular division Asexual Fision Budding Regeneration Sexual

35 Types of asexual reproduction Budding Vegetative reproduction Fragmentation Binary fission

36 budding Organisms like proteins, yeast, and some viruses an entirely new organism grows on an existing one Unlike fission, this is not brought about by the separation of an existing organism into partial entities. The developing organism begins its life as an entirely separate life form from its parent, separating into an autonomous entity only when it has fully matures.

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38 Vegetative reproduction Organisms: flowering plants Produce tiny pants (plantlets) at the tips of elongated stems that can take root and grow into independent plant Also horizontal stems Ex; strawberry plants- send out long trailing stems called stolons that produce roots when they touch the ground

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40 fragmentation Segmented worms and many echinoderms An organism physically splits and develops new, genetically identical organisms out of each segment Segments rapidly grow new cells to constitute their muscle fiber and internal

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42 Binary fission Bacterium has grown so that it has nearly doubled in size Dna replicates and divides in half producing two identical daughter cells Does not involve exchange or recombination of genetic information

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44 Venn diagram Create a venn diagram comparing and contrasting asexual and sexual reproduction Include: Evolution What organisms it's found in

45 advantages/disadvantages Now that you know a few things about asexual and sexual reproduction: what are some advantages and disadvantages of both?

46 Autotrophic vs. heterotrophic Autotrophic- organisms that make their own foodplants, algae, some protozoa and some bacteria Heterotrophic- organism that cannot make its own food and instead obtains its energy from eating other organisms- all animals, protozoa, fungi, and most bacteria

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48

49 autotrophs Photosynthesis- the use of sunlight to synthesize food from carbon dioxide and water- involves use of chlorophyll and produces oxygen as a byproduct

50 Autotrophs Chemosynthesis-use of energy released by inorganic chemical reactions to produce food- used in deep-sea communities where no sunlight is available- different species use different pathways Ex: chemosynthetic bacterial communities- found in hot springs on land and on sea floor around hydrothermal vents, cold seeps, whale carcasses, and sunken ships

51

52 Phylogenies

53 Phylogeny vocab. Phylogenetic tree- diagram showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among species; proportional to amount of evolutionary time and change Cladogram- branching diagram showing cladistic relationship between species Clade- a group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor

54

55 Phylogeny vocab. Monophyletic-(clade) consists of ancestor and all of its descendants Polyphyletic- consists of descendants and not all of the ancestors Paraphyletic- includes an ancestor but not all of its descendants

56

57 Phylogeny vocab. Autapomorphy- a distinctive feature (derived trait) that is unique to 1 given taxon Synapomorphy- derived trait shared by 2 or more groups Apomorphy- a specialized or derived character state Plesiomorphy- ancestral/primitive trait

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