Which row in the chart correctly identifies the functions of structures A, B, and C? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4

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1 1. What is a similarity between all bacteria and plants? A) They both have a nucleus B) They are both composed of cells C) They both have chloroplasts D) They both lack a cell wall 2. Which statement is not a part of the cell theory? A) Cells are the basic unit of structure of living things. B) Cells are the basic unit of function of living things. C) Cell parts such as chloroplasts are self-replicating. D) Cells come from preexisting cells. 3. To what would the phrase "is not a cell but has the ability to reproduce within a living cell" best describe? A) an alga B) a yeast C) a bacterium D) a virus 4. The cell theory states that A) all cells have nuclei that contain genetic information B) living organisms are composed of cells that arise from preexisting cells C) all cells regenerate and contain the same basic structures D) organisms that lack certain organelles reproduce by binary fission 5. Which statement describes an exception to the cell theory? A) Plants and animals are made up of structural units known as cells. B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain genetic material and can replicate. C) All cells arise from preexisting cells. D) The cell is the basic functional unit of all living things. 6. Which statement illustrates an exception to the concept that the cell is the unit of structure and function of all living things? A) Viruses contain genetic information but lack other cellular components. B) The cell is a complex "chemical factory." C) Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes. D) Most bacteria are classified as heterotrophic organisms. 7. Many scientists consider viruses nonliving. Evidence supporting this consideration includes the fact that viruses A) always function independently of living organisms B) are multinucleated cells C) lack basic cellular organelles D) cannot be reproduced in a sterile culture medium 8. The invention of the compound light microscope enabled scientists to observe cells, helping them to A) determine the number of atoms in a molecule B) discover a basic similarity among organisms C) study the behavior of chordates D) develop techniques for growing plants in a laboratory 9. It was once thought that decaying meat turned into maggots (fly larvae). Careful experimentation by scientists demonstrated that maggots actually come from fly eggs and not meat. These experiments illustrate that new individuals result only from A) genetic engineering B) reproduction and development C) nutrition and replication D) metabolic homeostasis 10. Which instrument was used in the 18th and 19th centuries and helped scientists develop the cell theory? A) electron microscope B) light microscope C) microdissecting apparatus D) ultracentrifuge

2 11. The development of the cell theory was most directly related to the A) improvement of the microscope and microscopic techniques B) use of a five-kingdom classification system C) development of the gene-chromosome theory D) discovery of bacteria and viruses 12. Which is the correct sequence of historical developments leading to our present knowledge of cells? A) electron microscope cell theory compound light microscope B) compound light microscope cell theory electron microscope C) cell theory electron microscope compound light microscope D) electron microscope compound light microscope cell theory 13. Structures in an animal cell are represented in the diagram below. Which row in the chart correctly identifies the functions of structures A, B, and C? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) Which cell structure is mainly responsible for releasing energy from food molecules in some single-celled organisms? A) ribosome B) chloroplast C) cell membrane D) mitochondrion

3 15. A land-dwelling organism, A, and an aquatic single-celled organism, B, are represented below. Which statement best explains how A and B are able to survive in their environments? A) The organelles in B perform similar functions to the organ systems in A. B) The transport system in B is more complex than the transport system in A. C) Both A and B take in oxygen from the water. D) Only A can pass on traits to offspring. 16. Which statement best describes the organelles in a cell? A) All organelles are involved directly with communication between cells. B) Organelles must work together and their activities must be coordinated. C) Organelles function only when there is a disruption in homeostasis. D) Each organelle must function independently of the others in order to maintain homeostasis. 17. The chloroplast is to a plant as A) a window is to a building B) a solar cell is to a building C) a room is to a building D) the roof is to a building 18. The mitochondria is to the cell as A) the motor is to a car B) the windshield is to a car C) the door is to a car D) the seatbelt is to a car 19. The cytoplasm is to the cell as A) rocks are to the ocean B) fish are to the ocean C) water is to the ocean D) the coral reef is to the ocean 20. The nucleus is the cell as A) the bones are to a human B) the heart is to human C) the muscles are to a human D) the brain is to a human 21. The cell membrane is to the cell as A) the ocean is to the Earth B) the atmosphere is to the Earth C) a house is to the Earth D) a forest is to the Earth 22. What cellular structure must oxygen cross to get from the outside to the inside of an animal cell? A) The nucleus B) The cytoplasm C) The plasma membrane D) The cell wall 23. In the diagram below, which letter indicates the part of the cell that carries out a function most similar to a function of the human excretory system? A) A B) B C) C D) D

4 24. Which cell structure is correctly paired with its primary function? A) ribosome protein synthesis B) mitochondrion movement C) vacuole cell division D) nucleus storage of nutrients 25. Which row in the chart below contains a cell structure paired with its primary function? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) What is the main function of a vacuole in a cell? A) storage B) coordination C) synthesis of molecules D) release of energy 27. In the cell shown below, which lettered structure is responsible for the excretion of most cellular wastes? 28. If the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed, what effect would this most likely have on the cell? A) It would stimulate mitotic cell division. B) The cell would be unable to synthesize proteins. C) Development of abnormal hereditary features would occur in the cell. D) Increased protein absorption would occur through the cell membrane. 29. The diagram below represents a cell. A) A B) B C) C D) D Which statement concerning ATP and activity within the cell is correct? A) The absorption of ATP occurs at structure A. B) The synthesis of ATP occurs within structure B. C) ATP is produced most efficiently by structure C. D) The template for ATP is found in structure D.

5 30. Which cell structure contains information needed for protein synthesis? A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) What organelle releases energy for metabolic activity in cells? A) chloroplast B) ribosome C) mitochondrion D) vacuole 32. The diagram below represents two cells, X and Y. Which statement is correct concerning the structure labeled A? A) It aids in the removal of metabolic wastes in both cell X and cell Y. B) It is involved in cell communication in cell X, but not in cell Y. C) It prevents the absorption of CO2 in cell X and 02 in cell Y. D) It represents the cell wall in cell X and the cell membrane in cell Y. 33. Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to A) store information B) build proteins C) release energy from nutrients D) dispose of metabolic wastes 34. What has to be properly functioning in a unicellular organism for homeostasis to be maintained? A) organelles B) insulin C) guard cells D) antibodies 35. Which organelle is correctly paired with its specific function? A) cell membrane storage of hereditary information B) chloroplast transport of materials C) ribosome synthesis of proteins D) vacuole production of ATP 36. Hereditary information is stored inside the A) ribosomes, which have chromosomes that contain many genes B) ribosomes, which have genes that contain many chromosomes C) nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain many genes D) nucleus, which has genes that contain many chromosomes 37. The largest amount of DNA in a plant cell is contained in A) a nucleus B) a chromosome C) a protein molecule D) an enzyme molecule 38. Where is most of the hereditary information that determines the traits of an organism located? A) only those cells of an individual produced by meiosis B) the nuclei of body cells of an individual C) certain genes in the vacuoles of body cells D) the numerous ribosomes in certain cells

6 39. Muscle cells in athletes often have more mitochondria than muscle cells in nonathletes. Based on this observation, it can be inferred that the muscle cells in athletes A) have a smaller demand for cell proteins than the muscle cells of nonathletes B) reproduce less frequently than the muscle cells of nonathletes C) have nuclei containing more DNA than nuclei in the muscle cells of nonathletes D) have a greater demand for energy than the muscle cells of nonathletes 40. In a cell, information that controls the production of proteins must pass from the nucleus to which organelle? A) cell membrane B) chloroplasts C) mitochondria D) ribosomes 41. The diagram below represents two single-celled organisms. These organisms carry out the activities needed to maintain homeostasis by using specialized internal A) tissues B) organelles C) systems D) organs 42. Which letter indicates a cell structure that directly controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell? A) Q B) R C) S D) T 43. In a cell, all organelles work together to carry out A) diffusion B) active transport C) information storage D) metabolic processes 44. Which cell organelle is most directly involved with the bonding of amino acids? A) mitochondrion B) endoplasmic reticulum C) cell wall D) ribosome 45. One difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells do not have A) a nucleus B) chloroplasts C) a cell membrane D) centrioles 46. Which letter in the diagram below indicates the structure that is most closely associated with excretion? A) A B) B C) C D) D

7 47. Which organelle is the site of cellular respiration? A) endoplasmic reticulum B) mitochondria C) ribosomes D) chloroplast function 48. Which organelle is correctly paired with its function? A) nucleus provides carbohydrates for fermentation B) chloroplast serves as a site for photosynthesis C) centriole synthesizes digestive enzymes D) lysosome packages cellular products 49. Which letter in the diagram below indicates an organelle that functions primarily in the synthesis of long chains of amino acids? A) A B) B C) C D) D 50. After a cell was treated with a certain chemical, the ribosomes stopped functioning. Which cell activity was immediately affected by this change in ribosome function? A) intracellular transport B) protein synthesis C) aerobic respiration D) excretion of metabolic wastes 51. Which organelles outside the cell nucleus contain genetic material? A) lysosomes and cell walls B) chloroplasts and mitochondria C) endoplasmic reticula and cell membranes D) vacuoles and Golgi complex 52. Which cell organelle is composed of a series of channels throughout the cytoplasm that functions in the transport of molecules? A) lysosome B) chloroplast C) cell wall D) endoplasmic reticulum 53. What would most likely happen if the ribosomes in a cell were not functioning? A) The cell would undergo uncontrolled mitotic cell division. B) The synthesis of enzymes would stop. C) The cell would produce antibodies. D) The rate of transport of glucose in the cytoplasm would increase. 54. Which structures could most likely be observed in cells in the low-power field of a compound light microscope? A) cell walls and chloroplasts B) ribosomes and endoplasmic reticula C) lysosomes and genes D) nucleotides and mitochondria 55. Which organelles must be present within a cell of a geranium leaf for respiration and photosynthesis to occur? A) cell wall and lysosome B) mitochondrion and chloroplast C) centrosome and nucleus D) endoplasmic reticulum and ribosome 56. Examples of self-duplicating cellular structures are the A) mitochondria and chloroplasts B) mitochondria and cell walls C) cell walls and chloroplasts D) vacuoles and chloroplasts 57. An intestinal cell that secretes an enzyme would most likely contain many A) ribosomes B) centrioles C) chloroplasts D) nuclei 58. Within a cell, where is the DNA chiefly found? A) cell wall B) plasma membrane C) ribosomes D) nucleus

8 59. In the diagram of a cell below, the structure labeled X enables the cell to 60. Which structures in the diagram below enable the observer to identify it as a plant cell? A) release energy B) store waste products C) control nuclear division D) manufacture proteins A) A and B B) B and C C) A and C D) B and D

7. Which letter in the diagram below indicates the structure that is most closely associated with excretion?

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