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1 Classification 1

2 Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified 2

3 What is Classification? Classification is the arrangement of organisms into orderly groups based on their similarities Classification is also known as taxonomy Taxonomists are scientists that identify & name organisms 3

4 Benefits of Classifying Accurately & uniformly names organisms Prevents misnomers such as starfish & jellyfish that aren't really fish Uses same language (Latin or some Greek) for all names Sea horse?? 4

5 Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names 5

6 Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists 6

7 Early Taxonomists 2000 years ago, Aristotle was the first taxonomist Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animals He subdivided them by their habitat ---land, sea, or air dwellers 7

8 Early Taxonomists John Ray, a botanist, was the first to use Latin for naming His names were very long descriptions telling everything about the plant 8

9 Carolus Linnaeus th century taxonomist Classified organisms by their structure Developed naming system still used today 9

10 Carolus Linnaeus Called the Father of Taxonomy Developed the modern system of naming known as binomial nomenclature Two-word name (Genus & species) 10

11 Standardized Naming Binomial nomenclature used Genus species Latin or Greek Italicized in print Capitalize genus, but NOT species Underline when writing Turdus migratorius American Robin 11

12 Binomial Nomenclature Which TWO are more closely related? 12

13 Rules for Naming Organisms The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms All names must be approved by International Naming Congresses (International Zoological Congress) This prevents duplicated names 13

14 Classification Groups Taxon ( taxa-plural) is a category into which related organisms are placed There is a hierarchy of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species 14

15 Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain BROADEST TAXON Kingdom Phylum (Division used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species Most Specific 15

16 Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup! 16

17 17

18 18

19 Broadest, most inclusive taxon Three domains Domains Archaea and Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membranebound organelles 19

20 ARCHAEA Kingdom - ARCHAEBACTERIA Probably the 1 st cells to evolve Live in HARSH environments Found in: Sewage Treatment Plants (Methanogens) Thermal or Volcanic Vents (Thermophiles) Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid Very salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake) - Halophiles 20

21 ARCHAEAN 21

22 BACTERIA Kingdom - EUBACTERIA Some may cause DISEASE Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones Important decomposers for environment Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. 22

23 Live in the intestines of animals 23

24 Domain Eukarya is Divided into Kingdoms Protista (protozoans, algae ) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts ) Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals) 24

25 Protista Most are unicellular Some are multicellular Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic Aquatic 25

26 Multicellular, except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitin Fungi 26

27 Plantae Multicellular Autotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose Photosynthesis Cell walls made of cellulose 27

28 Multicellular Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animals Animalia 28

29 29

30 Taxons Most genera contain a number of similar species The genus Homo is an exception (only contains modern humans) Classification is based on evolutionary relationships 30

31 31

32 Basis for Modern Taxonomy Homologous structures (same structure, different function) Similar embryo development Molecular Similarity in DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequence of Proteins 32

33 Homologous Structures (BONES in the FORELIMBS) shows Similarities in mammals. 33

34 Similarities in Vertebrate Embryos 34

35 Comparing Structures Character: A feature or thing we can examine or label. It is important that the feature be heritable. Homologous Character: Character which is shared by taxa by descent. Exists because it existed in a common ancestor. 35

36 Analogous Character: Shared resemblance between characters by other means than descent, such as adaptation. This is often called a homoplastic character. 36

37 Primitive Vs. Derived Characteristics Primitive Character = Plesiomorphy A character which is in the state shared by the common ancestor of the group. Derived Character = Apomorphy A character in a new state, not the primitive one. Shared Character: A character shared by all the members of the group. 37

38 Example VERTEBRATES CICHLID - has backbone, paired appendages (fins), dorsal nerve cord and aorta which are shared derived characters uniting the cichlid with frogs, turtles, kangaroos, mice, and humans. FROG - has all those plus legs. TURTLE - has all those plus a hard shelled egg called an amniotic egg. KANGAROO - all those plus hair, warm blood, and egg develops inside. MOUSE - all those plus placental development HUMAN - all those plus very large brain and loss of hair. NOTE THAT FOR EACH SHARED DERIVED CHARACTER THERE IS A PRIMITIVE CHARACTER. For example, kangaroos, mice and humans all share having hair. The corresponding primitive character is "not having hair". Fish, frogs and turtles lack hair, but these shared primitive characters are not evidence of relationship, because many other organisms lack hair that are outside the group we are considering - clams, for example. 38

39 Phylogeny a family tree for the evolutionary history of a species The root of the tree represents the ancestral lineage Tips of the branches represent descendents of the ancestor Movement upward shows forward motion through time Speciation: split in the lineage Shown as a branching of the tree

40 Cladogram Diagram showing how organisms are related based on shared, derived characteristics such as feathers, hair, or scales 40

41 Primate Cladogram 41

42 Phylogenic Tree Vs. Cladogram What s the difference? Not much. At this level they are used fairly interchangeably. Cladograms often emphasize derived characteristics. Phylogenic trees sometimes emphasize phylogenic groups. Both show evolutionary relationships. 42

43 43

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