CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS. Chapter 18"

Transcription

1 CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS Chapter 18

2 How many species are there? About 1.8 million species have been given scientific names Nearly 2/3 of which are insects 99% of all known animal species are smaller than bumble bees 99% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct

3 Taxonomy Classification the grouping of objects based on similarities Taxonomy the science of describing, naming, and classifying organisms Organisms are grouped into taxa (plural) or a taxon. Each category is a taxon. Freshmen (Class of 2016) Sophomore (Class of 2015) Junior (Class of 2014) Senior (Class of 2013)

4 History of Classification Aristotle ( BCE) developed the first classification system Based on easily observable characteristics All organisms were classified as plants or animals. Plants herbs, shrubs, and trees Animals things that swim, things that fly, or things that walk.

5 Carl Linnaeus ( ) Wrote a book Systema Naturae in 1735 that outlined his classification and naming system Classification hierarchy (groups within groups) Binomial nomenclature Organisms are grouped based on similarities in their form and structure at different levels

6 Levels of the Modern Linnaean System DOMAIN KINGDOM PHYLUM Gets more specific as you move down. CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES And, organisms are more closely related.

7

8 Binomial Nomenclature Binomial Nomenclature a two-word naming system using the genus and species names No two species can have the same scientific name Both names are in Latin Both names are italicized (underlined if handwritten) The genus name is capitalized and the species name is lowercase The species name is an identifier or descriptor EXAMPLE Apis mellifera mellifera honey

9 Try these Canis familiaris Canis lupis

10 Try these Felis domesticus Sus domesticus

11 How are living things classified? Traditionally, organisms were classified based physical characteristics (what could be seen). Mammals have hair, produce milk and provide care for young, and most have live birth

12 Problems with the Old Way Some organisms have similar features but are not closely related Example Birds, bats, and bugs all have wings that are used to fly but each evolved separately.

13 Problems with the Old Way Some organisms look different but are closely related Birds are dinosaurs (reptiles)

14 The Missing Link (or at least one of them) Archaeopteryx

15 Modern Classification Based on phylogeny Phylogeny the ancestral/evolutionary relationships among species Each species has a family tree that includes many ancestors and descendents and thousands of generations. Phylogenetic tree

16 How is phylogeny determined? Phylogenetics uses the presence or absence of traits to determine relatedness Morphology studying the physical structure or anatomy of organisms Very traditional but useful for living species and fossils

17 Homologous, Analogous, or Vestigial Homologous structures traits inherited from a common ancestor May or may not have the same function or the exact same appearance Example: forelimbs of tetrapods

18 Homologous, Analogous, or Vestigial Analogous structures structures with common functions Example Birds, bats, and bugs all have wings that are used to fly but each evolved separately.

19 Homologous, Analogous, or Vestigial Vestigial Structures evolutionary leftover Example the human appendix has no apparent function while rats and other rodents have an appendix that aids in digestion Example whales and snakes have a pelvis and femur

20 How is phylogeny determined? Biochemical comparing DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. Genes pass from generation to generation; therefore, all descendents will have the similar DNA The more similar the DNA or protein sequence the more closely related the species

21 Levels of the Modern Linnaean System DOMAIN KINGDOM PHYLUM Gets more specific as you move down. CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES And, organisms are more closely related.

22 Cladistics Cladisitics a method of analysis that infers phylogenies by careful comparisons of shared traits. Used to select the most likely phylogeny among a given set of organisms. Comparing traits Shared traits are defined as ancestral Derived traits evolve in one group but not another

23 Constructing a Cladogram Cladogram a phylogenetic tree that is drawn in a specific way to show evolutionary relationships Clade Clade all groups that originate from a certain point and have one common ancestor Outgroup a group that lacks some of the shared characters

24 New species Scientists are discovering new species all the time. So we have to know where to classify them and how to name them.

25 Constructing a Cladogram Characters in Vertebrates Four legs Backbone Amniotic egg Hair Lizard yes yes yes No Tuna no yes no No Frog yes yes no No Cat yes yes yes Yes

26 Interpreting Cladograms

27 Cladogram Questions After which animals did mammary glands develop? What animals do not have jaws? Which animals share the trait for lungs? Which animals have derived traits that protect them from the elements (weather)? Why is the trait for feathers marked on the line for pigeons not the main line? Which animals are probably predators?

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy.

The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy. Chapter 18 Key Idea: Biologists use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. The practice of naming

More information

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26

Phylogeny 9/8/2014. Evolutionary Relationships. Data Supporting Phylogeny. Chapter 26 Phylogeny Chapter 26 Taxonomy Taxonomy: ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature,

More information

Name: Class: Date: ID: A

Name: Class: Date: ID: A Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change

More information

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies

Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Macroevolution Part I: Phylogenies Taxonomy Classification originated with Carolus Linnaeus in the 18 th century. Based on structural (outward and inward) similarities Hierarchal scheme, the largest most

More information

9.3 Classification. Lesson Objectives. Vocabulary. Introduction. Linnaean Classification

9.3 Classification. Lesson Objectives. Vocabulary. Introduction. Linnaean Classification 9.3 Classification Lesson Objectives Outline the Linnaean classification, and define binomial nomenclature. Describe phylogenetic classification, and explain how it differs from Linnaean classification.

More information

Concept Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history.

Concept Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. Concept 15.4 Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. What is Taxonomy: identification, naming, and classification of species. Common Names: can cause confusion - May refer to several species (ex.

More information

What is the purpose of the Classifying System? To allow the accurate identification of a particular organism

What is the purpose of the Classifying System? To allow the accurate identification of a particular organism What is the purpose of the Classifying System? To allow the accurate identification of a particular organism Taxonomy The practice of classifying organisms -Taxonomy was founded nearly 300 years ago by

More information

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

8/23/2014. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Objectives Explain the following characteristics of the Linnaean system of classification: a. binomial nomenclature b. hierarchical classification List the major

More information

Chapter 17A. Table of Contents. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms

Chapter 17A. Table of Contents. Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification. Section 2 How Biologists Classify Organisms Classification of Organisms Table of Contents Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification Classification Section 1 Categories of Biological Classification

More information

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History

Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History Classification, Phylogeny yand Evolutionary History The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize

More information

2 Big Challenges of Classification

2 Big Challenges of Classification Classification Classification Classify to group things together based on similarities Why Classify? To make organisms/items easier to identify To make organisms/items easier to compare Allows us to predict

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biologists estimate that there are about 5 to 100 million species of organisms living on Earth today. Evidence from morphological, biochemical, and gene sequence

More information

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE

PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PHYLOGENY & THE TREE OF LIFE PREFACE In this powerpoint we learn how biologists distinguish and categorize the millions of species on earth. Early we looked at the process of evolution here we look at

More information

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life Biodiversity The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life How the 6 kingdoms came about At first, only two kingdoms were recognized Then Haeckel proposed a third kingdom Protista (where protists had both plant

More information

The Tree of Life. Chapter 17

The Tree of Life. Chapter 17 The Tree of Life Chapter 17 1 17.1 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms 2000 years ago Aristotle Grouped plants and animals Based on structural similarities Greeks and Romans included

More information

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity Key Concepts: Chapter 17 1. List the six kingdoms. 2. Our current system of classification was originally based on structures; scientists now base classification

More information

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems.

CLASSIFICATION. Why Classify? 2/18/2013. History of Taxonomy Biodiversity: variety of organisms at all levels from populations to ecosystems. Why Classify? Classification has been around ever since people paid attention to organisms. CLASSIFICATION One primeval system was based on harmful and non-harmful organisms. Life is easier when we organize

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

CLASSIFICATION NOTES

CLASSIFICATION NOTES CLASSIFICATION NOTES Classification Classification = arrangement of living things into groups according to their observed similarities. Important because it allows us to be able to study life easier Living

More information

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter focus Shifting from the process of how evolution works to the pattern evolution produces over time. Phylogeny Phylon = tribe, geny = genesis or origin

More information

Classification and Phylogeny

Classification and Phylogeny Classification and Phylogeny The diversity it of life is great. To communicate about it, there must be a scheme for organization. There are many species that would be difficult to organize without a scheme

More information

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny

Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny Chapter 19: Taxonomy, Systematics, and Phylogeny AP Curriculum Alignment Chapter 19 expands on the topics of phylogenies and cladograms, which are important to Big Idea 1. In order for students to understand

More information

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life

Biodiversity. The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life Biodiversity The Road to the Six Kingdoms of Life How the 6 kingdoms came about At first, only two kingdoms were recognized Then Haeckel proposed a third kingdom Protista (where protists had both plant

More information

The Tree of Life Classification Based on Evolutionary Relationships Modern classification is based on evolutionary relationships.

The Tree of Life Classification Based on Evolutionary Relationships Modern classification is based on evolutionary relationships. CHAPTER 17 The Tree of Life GETTING READY TO LEARN Preview Key Concepts 17.1 The Linnaean System of Classification Organisms can be classified based on physical similarities. 17.2 Classification Based

More information

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele

PHYLOGENY WHAT IS EVOLUTION? 1/22/2018. Change must occur in a population via allele PHYLOGENY EXERCISE 1 AND 2 WHAT IS EVOLUTION? The theory that all living organisms on earth are related and have a common ancestor. These organism have changed over time and are continuing to change. Changes

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Classification. copyright cmassengale

Classification. copyright cmassengale Classification 1 Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identified 2 What is

More information

Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food.

Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Heterotrophs must get energy by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs.

More information

Organizing Life s Diversity

Organizing Life s Diversity 17 Organizing Life s Diversity section 2 Modern Classification Classification systems have changed over time as information has increased. What You ll Learn species concepts methods to reveal phylogeny

More information

CLASSIFICATION. Finding Order in Diversity

CLASSIFICATION. Finding Order in Diversity CLASSIFICATION Finding Order in Diversity WHAT IS TAXONOMY? Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name. WHY CLASSIFY? To study the diversity of life, biologists

More information

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms.

1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. OBJECTIVE SHEET SYSTEMATICS AND CLASSIFICATION 1. Construct and use dichotomous keys to identify organisms. 2. Clarify the purpose behind systematics and phylogeny. 3. Identify the structures of a phylogenetic

More information

Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things.

Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things. Section 1: Biologists use a system of classification to organize information about the diversity of living things. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are

More information

Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Regents Biology

Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Regents Biology Evidence for Evolution by Natural Selection Objective: Determine the different types of evidence for proving evolution Evidence supporting evolution Fossil record shows change over time Comparative Anatomy

More information

Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory

Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory Evolution and Taxonomy Laboratory 1 Introduction Evolution refers to the process by which forms of life have changed through time by what is described as descent with modification. Evolution explains the

More information

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table

Fig. 26.7a. Biodiversity. 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading. 2. Course Syllabus. Fig. 26.7b Table Fig. 26.7a Biodiversity 1. Course Outline Outcomes Instructors Text Grading 2. Course Syllabus Fig. 26.7b Table 26.2-1 1 Table 26.2-2 Outline: Systematics and the Phylogenetic Revolution I. Naming and

More information

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 26. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life. Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Presentations by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick Investigating the Tree of Life Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species or group of

More information

Classification. 18a. Lab Exercise. Contents. Introduction. Objectives. 18a

Classification. 18a. Lab Exercise. Contents. Introduction. Objectives. 18a Lab Exercise Classification Contents Objectives 1 Introduction 1 Activity.1 Classification of Organisms 4 Activity.2 Phylogenetic Analysis 5 Resutls Section 7 Objectives - To create a classification of

More information

Classification of Organisms

Classification of Organisms Classification of Organisms Main Idea *****Chapter 14***** Students should be able to: * Understand why a classification system is important * Understand that there are a variety of ways to classify organisms

More information

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life

Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life Phylogeny & Systematics: The Tree of Life An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite appearances

More information

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny

CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny CHAPTER 26 PHYLOGENY AND THE TREE OF LIFE Connecting Classification to Phylogeny To trace phylogeny or the evolutionary history of life, biologists use evidence from paleontology, molecular data, comparative

More information

Vocabulary Classification the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy the science of naming and classifying

Vocabulary Classification the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy the science of naming and classifying Classification.. Vocabulary Classification the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy the science of naming and classifying organisms trait a characteristic or behavior

More information

Biology Classification Unit 11. CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics

Biology Classification Unit 11. CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics Biology Classification Unit 11 11:1 Classification and Taxonomy CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics TAXONOMY: the science of classifying living things

More information

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS

PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS AP BIOLOGY EVOLUTION/HEREDITY UNIT Unit 1 Part 11 Chapter 26 Activity #15 NAME DATE PERIOD PHYLOGENY AND SYSTEMATICS PHYLOGENY Evolutionary history of species or group of related species SYSTEMATICS Study

More information

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics)

UoN, CAS, DBSC BIOL102 lecture notes by: Dr. Mustafa A. Mansi. The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogeny? - Systematics? The Phylogenetic Systematics (Phylogeny and Systematics) - Phylogenetic systematics? Connection between phylogeny and classification. - Phylogenetic systematics informs the

More information

Chapter 18: Classification

Chapter 18: Classification Chapter 18: Classification Dichotomous Key A way to identify unknown organisms Contains major characteristics of groups of organisms Pairs of CONTRASTING descriptions 4. After each description key either

More information

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS 1. Taxonomy The branch of biology that deals with the classification of living organisms About 1.8 million species of plants and animals have been identified. Some scientists

More information

Classification Notes

Classification Notes Name Living Environment Classification Notes Characteristics of Living Things All living things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, grow and develop, respond to their surroundings,

More information

Organizing Life on Earth

Organizing Life on Earth Organizing Life on Earth Inquire: Organizing Life on Earth Overview Scientists continually obtain new information that helps to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Each group of organisms

More information

SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY. VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms.

SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY. VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. taxonomy, taxon 2. kingdom, species 3. phylum, division 4. species name, species

More information

9/19/2012. Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity. Early Systems of Classification

9/19/2012. Chapter 17 Organizing Life s Diversity. Early Systems of Classification Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms Click on a lesson name to select. Early Systems of Classification Biologists use a system of classification

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Lecture Outline Overview: Investigating the Tree of Life Evolutionary biology is about both process and pattern. o The processes of evolution are natural selection

More information

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity

Chapter 17. Organizing Life's Diversity Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity Key Concepts: Chapter 17 1. List the 3 domains and the 6 kingdoms. 2. Our current system of classification was originally based on structures; scientists now base

More information

Taxonomy. The science of naming organisms.

Taxonomy. The science of naming organisms. Taxonomy The science of naming organisms. Why Classify? Aristotle Did It Plant or animal? If an animal, does it Fly Swim Crawl Simple classifications Used common names Carolus Linnaeus did it better

More information

First things first: What IS classification and WHY do we do it (or DO we)? How are living things classified? Classification Systems

First things first: What IS classification and WHY do we do it (or DO we)? How are living things classified? Classification Systems How are living things classified? Objective: Describe the system used today to classify organisms (including the seven levels of classification as well as scientific names) First things first: What IS

More information

Classification. Sorting It All Out. section 1. Chapter 9

Classification. Sorting It All Out. section 1. Chapter 9 Classification Chapter 9 Sorting It All Out section 1 1 Why Classify? Classification Is the division of organisms into groups or classes based on common characteristics For thousands of years, humans have

More information

Unit 2 Biodiversity Ch. 4 Patterns of Life

Unit 2 Biodiversity Ch. 4 Patterns of Life Unit 2 Biodiversity Ch. 4 Patterns of Life Name: 4.1 Characteristics of Life In order to be considered living, an organism must possess the following Six (6) characteristics: 1. Living things are organized

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny 2. Determining Phylogenies 3. Evolutionary History Revealed in Genomes 1. Key Concepts Pertaining to Phylogeny PHYLOGENY

More information

What is Evolution? Evolution Unit Vocabulary. Answer: Evidence of Evolution. What is a Gene Pool? Change over time.

What is Evolution? Evolution Unit Vocabulary. Answer: Evidence of Evolution. What is a Gene Pool? Change over time. What is Evolution? Evolution Unit Vocabulary Practice Quiz Change over time. Evidence of Evolution The gradual development of something, especially from simple to more complex. Can be big or very small

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley with contributions from

More information

Station 1. Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities:

Station 1. Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities: Station 1 Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities: 2. Breeding behavior: 3. Geographical distribution: 4. Chromosome

More information

Chapter 10. Classification and Phylogeny of Animals. Order in Diversity. Hierarchy of taxa. Table Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature

Chapter 10. Classification and Phylogeny of Animals. Order in Diversity. Hierarchy of taxa. Table Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 10 Classification and Phylogeny of Animals Order in Diversity History Systematic zoologists have three

More information

How should we organize the diversity of animal life?

How should we organize the diversity of animal life? How should we organize the diversity of animal life? The difference between Taxonomy Linneaus, and Cladistics Darwin What are phylogenies? How do we read them? How do we estimate them? Classification (Taxonomy)

More information

The Environment and Change Over Time

The Environment and Change Over Time The Environment and Change Over Time Biological Evidence of Evolution What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column

More information

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships

Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Phylogenies Show Evolutionary Relationships Chapter 26: Phylogeny and the Tree of Life You Must Know The taxonomic categories and how they indicate relatedness. How systematics is used to develop phylogenetic trees. How to construct a phylogenetic

More information

Outline. Classification of Living Things

Outline. Classification of Living Things Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics

More information

CHAPTER 10 Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals

CHAPTER 10 Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals CHAPTER 10 Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals 10-1 10-2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Linnaeus and Taxonomy More than 1.5 million species of

More information

CH. 18 Classification

CH. 18 Classification CH. 18 Classification Name:_ 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms a. are going extinct. b. are very numerous and diverse. c. are too much alike. d. share

More information

Zoology. Classification

Zoology. Classification Zoology Zoology involves studying all aspects of organisms belonging to the animal kingdom taxonomy, animal physiology, comparative anatomy, and ecology. Our study of Zoology will be focused on the different

More information

16.4 The Evidence of Evolution. Adapted from following Materials; Biology,Miller & Levine (2010) Understanding Evolution (evolution.berkely.

16.4 The Evidence of Evolution. Adapted from following Materials; Biology,Miller & Levine (2010) Understanding Evolution (evolution.berkely. 16.4 The Evidence of Evolution Adapted from following Materials; Biology,Miller & Levine (2010) Understanding Evolution (evolution.berkely.edu) Guiding Question: What are the main lines of scientific evidence

More information

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies

Biology 1B Evolution Lecture 2 (February 26, 2010) Natural Selection, Phylogenies 1 Natural Selection (Darwin-Wallace): There are three conditions for natural selection: 1. Variation: Individuals within a population have different characteristics/traits (or phenotypes). 2. Inheritance:

More information

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY!

Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY! Biology 211 (2) Week 1 KEY Chapter 1 KEY FIGURES: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7 VOCABULARY: Adaptation: a trait that increases the fitness Cells: a developed, system bound with a thin outer layer made of

More information

The Road to the Six Kingdoms

The Road to the Six Kingdoms Bio 2201 Unit 2 The Road to the Six Kingdoms A 2011study estimated there are about 8.6 million species on earth. Only 1.8 million species have been identified and named. *Chromista is a sub-kingdom group

More information

Evidence of Evolution

Evidence of Evolution Evidence of Evolution There is a gigantic body of evidence supporting evolution. Six major areas of study contribute to that body of evidence: 1. The Fossil Record 2. Comparative Anatomy 3. Comparative

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Phylogenetic Analysis

Phylogenetic Analysis Phylogenetic Analysis Aristotle Through classification, one might discover the essence and purpose of species. Nelson & Platnick (1981) Systematics and Biogeography Carl Linnaeus Swedish botanist (1700s)

More information

Classification Systems. - Taxonomy

Classification Systems. - Taxonomy Classification Systems - Taxonomy Why Classify? 2.5 million kinds of organisms Not complete- 20 million organisms estimated Must divide into manageable groups To work with the diversity of life we need

More information

Phylogeny and Systematics

Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Modified by Maria Morlin racing phylogeny Phylogeny: he evolutionary

More information

What is classification? Basically classification is a fancy word for organization.

What is classification? Basically classification is a fancy word for organization. Classification What is classification? Basically classification is a fancy word for organization. Some Scientists believe there are as many as 200 million different kinds of living things on our planet.

More information

This course covers mammals (as loosely defined above). To classify the cheetah, we would do the following:

This course covers mammals (as loosely defined above). To classify the cheetah, we would do the following: Mammalogy! Taxonomy: Definition of a mammal: Basic mammalian characteristics include: Mammary glands Endothermy Hair Sweat glands Divided into about 29 orders, 125 families, 1,229 genera, and over 5,420

More information

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011

Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Lecture 11 Friday, October 21, 2011 Phylogenetic tree (phylogeny) Darwin and classification: In the Origin, Darwin said that descent from a common ancestral species could explain why the Linnaean system

More information

Classification (aka Taxonomy) Living Environment

Classification (aka Taxonomy) Living Environment Classification (aka Taxonomy) Living Environment Why must we classify? There are SO MANY critters out there! How do we know who s who and what s what? Biologists use a classification system to name organisms

More information

Objectives. Classification. Activity. Scientists classify millions of species

Objectives. Classification. Activity. Scientists classify millions of species Objectives Classification Notes 8.1 Summarize classification Describe the evidence used to classify organisms. List the seven levels of classification. Describe and list the six kingdoms of living organisms

More information

Taxonomy and Biodiversity

Taxonomy and Biodiversity Chapter 25/26 Taxonomy and Biodiversity Evolutionary biology The major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth Process: a- natural selection b- mechanisms that change

More information

LAB 21: Evolution and Classification

LAB 21: Evolution and Classification LAB 21: Evolution and Classification Introduction: This lab is an adapted version of one created by Robert P. Gendron of Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Humans classify almost everything, including

More information

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny

The Tree of Life. Phylogeny The Tree of Life Phylogeny Phylogenetics Phylogenetic trees illustrate the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms, or among a family of related nucleic acid or protein sequences Each branch

More information

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B. Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. AP Biology Notes Outline Enduring Understanding 1.B Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life. Enduring Understanding 1.B: Organisms are linked by lines of descent from

More information

Classification Cladistics & The Three Domains of Life. Biology Mrs. Flannery

Classification Cladistics & The Three Domains of Life. Biology Mrs. Flannery Classification Cladistics & The Three Domains of Life Biology Mrs. Flannery Finding Order in Diversity Earth is over 4.5 billion years old. Life on Earth appeared approximately 3.5 billion years ago and

More information

Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important?

Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important? Background: Why Is Taxonomy Important? Taxonomy is the system of classifying, or organizing, living organisms into a system based on their similarities and differences. Imagine you are a scientist who

More information

Thursday, January 14. Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda:

Thursday, January 14. Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda: Thursday, January 14 Teaching Point: SWBAT. assess their knowledge to prepare for the Evolution Summative Assessment. (TOMORROW) Agenda: 1. Show Hinsz your completed Review WS 2. Discuss answers to Review

More information

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 Classification

Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 Classification Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 Classification Scan Section 1 of your book. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. 1. 2. 3. Review species

More information

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

Phylogeny and the Tree of Life LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 26 Phylogeny and the Tree of Life

More information

Unit 8 Classification

Unit 8 Classification Unit 8 Classification Chapter 18: Classification www.pearsonrealize.com 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity (510) 18.2 Modern Evolutionary Classification (516) 18.3 Building the Tree of Life (523) Name: Teacher:

More information

Modern Evolutionary Classification. Section 18-2 pgs

Modern Evolutionary Classification. Section 18-2 pgs Modern Evolutionary Classification Section 18-2 pgs 451-455 Modern Evolutionary Classification In a sense, organisms determine who belongs to their species by choosing with whom they will mate. Taxonomic

More information

Face area (cm 2 ) Brain surface area (cm 2 ) Cranial capacity (cm 3 ) 1, Jaw Angle ( º )

Face area (cm 2 ) Brain surface area (cm 2 ) Cranial capacity (cm 3 ) 1, Jaw Angle ( º ) Honors Biology Test : Evolution GOOD LUCK! You ve learned so much! Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (2 pts each) 1. As we move through the

More information

Zoological Systematics & Taxonomy

Zoological Systematics & Taxonomy Name: PRE-LAB This lab is designed to introduce you to the basics of animal classification (systematics) and taxonomy of animals. This is a field that is constantly changing with the discovery of new animals,

More information

Classification. Living. Things. Amy Brown Science Stuff

Classification. Living. Things. Amy Brown Science Stuff Classification of Living Amy Brown Science Stuff Things Scientists have described and named a total of: 1.5 million species. It is estimated that the total number of species is about: 10 million. Life

More information

OBJECTIVE 2: USE AND DEVELOP A SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

OBJECTIVE 2: USE AND DEVELOP A SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Terms to Know o Archaea o bacteria o binomialnomenclature o classify o domain o Eukarya o genus o species o taxonomy OBJECTIVE 2: USE AND DEVELOP A SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM Lesson Objectives Explain

More information

In a way, organisms determine who belongs to their species by choosing with whom they will! MODERN EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION 18-2 MATE

In a way, organisms determine who belongs to their species by choosing with whom they will! MODERN EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION 18-2 MATE MODERN EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION 18-2 In a way, organisms determine who belongs to their species by choosing with whom they will! MATE Taxonomic groups are invented by scientists to group organisms with

More information