3 Terms to Know 1. Radiometric Dating 12. Miller and Urey s 2. Geologic Time Scale experiment 3. Cladistics 13. endosymbiotic theory 4. macroevolutionary patterns 14. binomial nomenclature 5. Background extinction 15. Taxa 6. mass extinction 16. Domain 7. Gradualism 8. Punctuated Equilibrium 9. Adaptive Radiation 10. convergent evolution 11. Coevolution
4 Objectives 54a) I can describe the goals of and interpret a cladogram. binomial nomenclature and 56a) I can name the six kingdoms systematics. of life as they are currently 54b) I can identify the taxa in the identified. classification system devised by 56b) I can explain what the tree Linnaeus. of life represents. 55a) I can explain the difference between evolutionary classification and Linnaean classification and explain the use of DNA sequences in classification. 55b) I can describe how to make
5 Assigning Scientific Names The first step in understanding and studying diversity is to describe and name each species. By using a scientific name, biologists can be sure that they are discussing the same organism. Common names can be confusing because they vary among languages and from place to place. For example, the names cougar, puma, panther, and mountain lion can all be used to indicate the same animal Felis Concolor.
6 Binomial Nomenclature In the 1730s, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature. The scientific name usually is Latin. It is written in italics. The first word begins with a capital letter, and the second word is lowercased.
7 Binomial Nomenclature The polar bear, for example, is called Ursus maritimus. The first part of the name Ursus is the genus to which the organism belongs. A genus is a group of similar species. The genus Ursus contains five other species of bears, including Ursus arctos, the brown bear or grizzly bear.
8 Binomial Nomenclature The second part of a scientific name maritimus for polar bears is unique to each species and is often a description of the organism s habitat or of an important trait. The Latin word maritimus refers to the sea: polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea.
9 Binomial Nomenclature The scientific name of the red maple is Acer rubrum. The genus Acer consists of all maple trees. The species rubrum describes the red maple s color.
10 Classifying Species into Larger Groups In addition to naming organisms, biologists try to organize, or classify, living and fossil species into larger groups that have biological meaning. Biologists often refer to these groups as taxa (singular: taxon). The science of naming and grouping organisms is called systematics.
11 Seven Levels The scientific name of a camel with two humps is Camelus bactrianus. This illustration shows how a Bactrian camel, Camelus bactrianus, is grouped within each Linnaean category. The genus Camelus contains another species, Camelus dromedarius, the dromedary, with only one hump.
12 Family The South American llama bears some resemblance to Bactrian camels and dromedaries. But the llama is more closely related to other South American species than it is to European and Asian camels. Therefore, llamas are placed in a different genus, Lama; their species name is Lama glama. Genera that share many similarities are grouped into a larger category, the family in this case, Camelidae.
13 Order Closely related families are grouped into the next larger rank an order. Camels and llamas (family Camelidae) are grouped with several other animal families, including deer (family Cervidae) and cattle (family Bovidae), into the order Artiodactyla, hoofed animals with an even number of toes.
14 Class Closely related orders are grouped into the next larger rank, a class. The order Artiodactyla is placed in the class Mammalia, which includes all animals that are warmblooded, have body hair, and produce milk for their young.
15 Phylum Classes are grouped into a phylum. A phylum includes organisms that are different but that share important characteristics. The class Mammalia is grouped with birds (class Aves), reptiles (class Reptilia), amphibians (class Amphibia), and all classes of fish into the phylum Chordata. These organisms share important bodyplan features, among them a nerve cord along the back.
16 Kingdom The largest and most inclusive of Linnaeus s taxonomic categories is the kingdom. All multicellular animals are placed in the kingdom Animalia.
18 Warm Up: The seven Taxa of the classification system and how to remember them. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family King Philip Came Over For Genus Good Species Spaghetti
19 Changing Ideas About Kingdoms During Linnaeus s time, living things were classified as either animals or as plants. Animals were organisms that moved from place to place and used food for energy. Plants were green organisms that generally did not move and got their energy from the sun. As biologists learned more about the natural world, they realized that Linnaeus s two kingdoms Animalia and Plantae did not reflect the full diversity of life.
20 Six Kingdoms
21 Three Domains Genetic analysis has revealed that the two main prokaryotic kingdoms are more different from each other, and from eukaryotes, than previously thought. So, biologists established a new taxonomic category the domain. A domain is a larger, more inclusive category than a kingdom. Under this system, there are three domains domain Bacteria (corresponding to domain Eubacteria), domain Archaea (corresponding to kingdom Archaebacteria), and domain Eukarya (corresponding to kingdoms Fungi, Plantae, Animalia, and kingdom Protista ).
22 Three Domains
23 The Tree of All Life
24 Domain Bacteria Members of the domain Bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic. This domain corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria. Their cells have thick, rigid walls that surround a cell membrane and contain a substance known as peptidoglycan. These bacteria are ecologically diverse, ranging from free-living soil organisms to deadly parasites. Some photosynthesize, while others do not. Some need oxygen to survive, while others are killed by oxygen.
25 Domain Archaea The domain Archaea corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria. Members of the domain Archaea are unicellular and prokaryotic, and they live in some extreme environments in volcanic hot springs, brine pools, and black organic mud totally devoid of oxygen. Many of these bacteria can survive only in the absence of oxygen. Their cell walls lack peptidoglycan, and their cell membranes contain unusual lipids that are not found in any other organism.
26 Domain Eukarya The domain Eukarya consists of all organisms that have a nucleus. It comprises the four remaining kingdoms of the six-kingdom system: Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
27 The Protists : Unicellular Eukaryotes Most protists are unicellular, but one group, the brown algae, is multicellular. Some protists are photosynthetic, while others are heterotrophic. Some display characters that resemble those of fungi, plants, or animals.
28 Fungi Members of the kingdom Fungi are heterotrophs with cell walls containing chitin. Most fungi feed on dead or decaying organic matter. They secrete digestive enzymes into their food source, which break the food down into smaller molecules. The fungi then absorb these smaller molecules into their bodies. Mushrooms and other recognizable fungi are multicellular, like the ghost fungus. Some fungi yeasts, for example are unicellular.
29 Plantae Members of the kingdom Plantae are multicellular, have cell walls that contain cellulose, and are autotrophic. Autotrophic plants are able to carry on photosynthesis using chlorophyll. Plants are nonmotile they cannot move from place to place. The entire plant kingdom is the sister group to the red algae, which are protists. The plant kingdom, therefore, includes the green algae along with mosses, ferns, cone-bearing plants, and flowering plants.
30 Animalia Members of the kingdom Animalia are multicellular and heterotrophic. Animal cells do not have cell walls. Most animals can move about, at least for some part of their life cycle. There is incredible diversity within the animal kingdom, and many species of animals exist in nearly every part of the planet.
31 Clades A clade is a group of species that includes a single common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor living and extinct. A clade must be a monophyletic group. A monophyletic group must include all species that are descended from a common ancestor, and cannot include any species that are not descended from that common ancestor.
32 Cladograms Modern evolutionary classification uses a method called cladistic analysis to determine how clades are related to one another. This information is used to link clades together into a cladogram, which illustrates how groups of organisms are related to one another by showing how evolutionary lines, or lineages, branched off from common ancestors.
Lesson Overview 18.1 Scientists have been trying to identify, name, and find order in the diversity of life for a long time. The first scientific system for naming and grouping organisms was set up long
18.3 Building the Tree of Life Changing Ideas About Kingdoms This diagram shows some of the ways in which organisms have been classified into kingdoms since the 1700s. Three Domains Genetic analysis has
18.1 Finding order in diversity Binomial Nomenclature In the 1730s, Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus developed a two-word naming system called binomial nomenclature. In deciding how to place organisms
Finding Order in Diversity Key Questions What are the goals of binomial nomenclature and systematics? How did Linnaeus group species into larger taxa? Vocabulary binomial nomenclature genus systematics
Classification Practice Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. An organism may have different
Name Class Date Section 18-1 Finding Order in Diversity (pages 447-450) Key Concepts How are living things organized for study? What is binomial nomenclature? What is Linnaeus s system of classification?
Building the Tree of Life THINK ABOUT IT The process of identifying and naming all known organisms, living and extinct, is a huge first step toward the goal of systematics. Yet naming organisms is only
Taxonomy Taxonomy Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms. It has two main purposes: to identify organisms to represent relationships among organisms Binomial Nomenclature Our present biological
Classification Cladistics & The Three Domains of Life Biology Mrs. Flannery Finding Order in Diversity Earth is over 4.5 billion years old. Life on Earth appeared approximately 3.5 billion years ago and
Name Exam Date Class Unit 9: Taxonomy (Classification) Notes What is Classification? is when we place organisms into based on their. Classification is also known as. Taxonomists are scientists that & organisms
Chapter 18: Classification Structured Notes Why Classify? 1) ) Taxon = Taxonomy = Field of biology that deals with classifying and naming organisms Taxonomist = is a scientists who determines relationships
Biology Classification Unit 11 11:1 Classification and Taxonomy CLASSIFICATION: process of dividing organisms into groups with similar characteristics TAXONOMY: the science of classifying living things
Why Classify? Classification has been around ever since people paid attention to organisms. CLASSIFICATION One primeval system was based on harmful and non-harmful organisms. Life is easier when we organize
Prokaryotic Cell Eukaryotic Cell Autotrophs capture the light energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy they use for food. Heterotrophs must get energy by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs.
Chapter 18 Classification Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter on the line provided that best answers the question or completes the statement. 1. Scientists assign each kind of organism a universally
CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING THINGS 1. Taxonomy The branch of biology that deals with the classification of living organisms About 1.8 million species of plants and animals have been identified. Some scientists
Classification Systems Classification is just a fancy word for organization. So this chapter is equivalent to Biology cleaning its room! A Vast Science Biology, the study of life, is no simple science.
Classification (aka Taxonomy) Living Environment Why must we classify? There are SO MANY critters out there! How do we know who s who and what s what? Biologists use a classification system to name organisms
Classification of Living Things Ch.11 Notes Why do we classify things?! Supermarket aisles! Libraries! Classes! Teams/sports! Members of a family! Roads! Cities! Money What is classification?! Classification:
Classification Systems - Taxonomy Why Classify? 2.5 million kinds of organisms Not complete- 20 million organisms estimated Must divide into manageable groups To work with the diversity of life we need
Domains and Kingdoms Archaea Ancient Bacteria Bacteria Regular Bacteria Eukaryota Organisms with a nucleus DOMAIN: Archaea KINGDOM: Archaebacteria Cell Type Structural Organization Cell Wall Mode of Nutrition
Zoology Zoology involves studying all aspects of organisms belonging to the animal kingdom taxonomy, animal physiology, comparative anatomy, and ecology. Our study of Zoology will be focused on the different
CH. 18 Classification Name:_ 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part because organisms a. are going extinct. b. are very numerous and diverse. c. are too much alike. d. share
Classification What is classification? Basically classification is a fancy word for organization. Some Scientists believe there are as many as 200 million different kinds of living things on our planet.
Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change
CLASSIFICATION Similarities and Differences TEKS 8A: Students will define taxonomy and recognize the importance of a standard system to the scientific community 8B: Students will categorize organisms using
Name: Period: Biology Test Review: Classification/Taxonomy MAKE SURE YOUR BOOKLET IS COMPLETELY FINISHED! If you are missing information, it can be found on your teacher s webpage. I. Definitions Try to
Classification of Organisms Main Idea *****Chapter 14***** Students should be able to: * Understand why a classification system is important * Understand that there are a variety of ways to classify organisms
9.3 Classification Lesson Objectives Outline the Linnaean classification, and define binomial nomenclature. Describe phylogenetic classification, and explain how it differs from Linnaean classification.
The Tree of Life Phylogeny Phylogenetics Phylogenetic trees illustrate the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms, or among a family of related nucleic acid or protein sequences Each branch
What makes things alive? CRITERIA FOR LIFE Learning Goals I can determine if something is alive based on the criteria for life. I can describe the history of life on Earth. I can describe how organisms
Classification Classification Classify to group things together based on similarities Why Classify? To make organisms/items easier to identify To make organisms/items easier to compare Allows us to predict
Chapter 25/26 Taxonomy and Biodiversity Evolutionary biology The major goal of evolutionary biology is to reconstruct the history of life on earth Process: a- natural selection b- mechanisms that change
Classification of Living Things Unit II pp 98 Why There is a Need for Classifying There are over 2 million different types of organisms known. biologists can organize living things into groups. Taxonomy
Unit 8 Classification Chapter 18: Classification www.pearsonrealize.com 18.1 Finding Order in Diversity (510) 18.2 Modern Evolutionary Classification (516) 18.3 Building the Tree of Life (523) Name: Teacher:
Classification.. Vocabulary Classification the process of arranging organisms into groups based on similarities Taxonomy the science of naming and classifying organisms trait a characteristic or behavior
CLASSIFICATION NOTES Classification Classification = arrangement of living things into groups according to their observed similarities. Important because it allows us to be able to study life easier Living
Classification 1 Species of Organisms There are known species of organisms This is organisms that ever lived!!!!! are still being found and identified 2 What is Classification? is the arrangement of organisms
The Classification of Plants and Other Organisms Chapter 18 LEARNING OBJECTIVE 1 Define taxonomy Explain why the assignment of a scientific name to each species is important for biologists KEY TERMS TAXONOMY
Name Living Environment Classification Notes Characteristics of Living Things All living things have a cellular organization, contain similar chemicals, use energy, grow and develop, respond to their surroundings,
Classification of Living Things What is classification? Classification: putting things into orderly groups based on similar characteristics. Ways we classify things Supermarket aisles Libraries Classes
Organizing Life on Earth Inquire: Organizing Life on Earth Overview Scientists continually obtain new information that helps to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth. Each group of organisms
Cladograms A diagram that shows evolutionary relationships TAXONOMY The Science of Classifying Organisms Why do we need to classify? Imagine a store..how do you know where to find the milk or the cereal?
Section 1: The History of Classification Section 2: Modern Classification Section 3: Domains and Kingdoms Click on a lesson name to select. Early Systems of Classification Biologists use a system of classification
NAME: DATE: PER: CLASSIFICATION OF LIFE Powerpoint Notes 1. Species of Organisms a) There are known species of organisms b) This is only of all organisms that ever lived. c) are still being found and identified.
Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity Key Concepts: Chapter 17 1. List the 3 domains and the 6 kingdoms. 2. Our current system of classification was originally based on structures; scientists now base
NAME pg. 1 Classification Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species Eukarya Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primate Hominidae Homo sapiens Mnemonic: DUMB KING PHILIP CAME OVER FOR GOOD SOUP Domain
Classification = the grouping of objects or organisms based on a set of criteria. i TAXONOMY = A branch of biology that groups and names organisms. I. History A. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Greek philosopher
Concept 15.4 Modern Taxonomy reflects evolutionary history. What is Taxonomy: identification, naming, and classification of species. Common Names: can cause confusion - May refer to several species (ex.
Section 3: The most widely used biological classification system has six kingdoms within three domains. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What I Learned Essential Questions What are the major characteristics
SECTION 17-1 REVIEW BIODIVERSITY VOCABULARY REVIEW Distinguish between the terms in each of the following pairs of terms. 1. taxonomy, taxon 2. kingdom, species 3. phylum, division 4. species name, species
The Tree of Life Chapter 17 1 17.1 Taxonomy The science of naming and classifying organisms 2000 years ago Aristotle Grouped plants and animals Based on structural similarities Greeks and Romans included
Unit Two: Biodiversity Chapter 4 A. Classifying Living Things (Ch.4 - page 100) Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving ( changing ): new evidence is discovered laws and theories are tested and possibly
Classification Essential Question Why is it important to place living things into categories? Compare and contrast Taxonomy comparison 18.1 History of Taxonomy Objectives Describe Aristotle s classification
Objectives Classification Notes 8.1 Summarize classification Describe the evidence used to classify organisms. List the seven levels of classification. Describe and list the six kingdoms of living organisms
Outline Classification of Living Things Chapter 20 Mader: Biology 8th Ed. Taxonomy Binomial System Species Identification Classification Categories Phylogenetic Trees Tracing Phylogeny Cladistic Systematics
Organizing Life s Diversity Section 17.1 Classification Scan Section 1 of your book. Write three questions that come to mind from reading the headings and the illustration captions. 1. 2. 3. Review species
Sorting It All Out CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS 1 WHAT DO I NEED TO LEARN FROM THIS UNIT? Classify organisms into the currently recognized kingdoms according to characteristics that they share. Be familiar
Classification of Living Things Heather Spalding: University of Hawaii-Manoa GK-12 program VOCABULARY Write the term next to the definition. You will need to know these terms to understand the classification
Classification of Living Organisms Learning Outcome B1 Learning Outcome B1 Apply the Kingdom System of classification to study the diversity of organisms. Student Achievement Indicators Students who have
Biological Kingdoms An introduction to the six kingdoms of living things 3 Domains Archaea 6 Kingdoms Archaebacteria Bacteria Eubacteria Eukaryota Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista Domain Eukaryota Kingdom
Name: _ Due Date: _ Per: _ Unit 4.2 Study Guide Directions: Complete all sections to the best of your ability. On the day of the Quiz (the due date for this assignment) turn this in with all of your Unit
Friday April 8 th 2016 Warm-Up Select a highlighter. Get a bottle of glue. Update your Table of Contents (see whiteboard). Today In Science Classification Presentation and Notes How many different types
Biology 11 Taxonomy Objectives By the end of the lesson you should be able to: State the levels of classification and the man who created the classification system Describe the 3 domains and the 4 kingdoms
Taxonomy Branch of Biology dealing with classification and naming of living things Species of Organisms There are an estimated 3 to 100 million species of organisms (most agree with 11 million) This is
Classifying Organisms What are living things, and how can they be classified? binomial nomenclature species genus dichotomous key cladogram Classifying Living Things Classification: organizing information
DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote 1. Test Monday 2. Lab Report Rough Draft (typed) due Wednesday 3. Lab Report Due Friday Oct 7th 4. Letter to MP due Tuesday Oct 11 th CAROLUS LINNAEUS
Chapter 18: Classification Dichotomous Key A way to identify unknown organisms Contains major characteristics of groups of organisms Pairs of CONTRASTING descriptions 4. After each description key either
Classification A. Why classify? 1. Organize in a meaningful way Too many living things to talk about without organization 2. Universal naming All scientists everywhere use the one same name. For example:
Classification One Big Mess! Three domains, 5 (or 6) Kingdoms Let s make a big chart. Cell type? Chromosomes? Ribosomes? Cell wall or not? Made of what? Unicellular or multicellular? Autotroph or heterotroph?
Classification and Viruses Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Biologists use a classification system to group organisms in part
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Six Kingdoms By Cindy Grigg 1 The first scientist to try to classify organisms was the Greek scholar Aristotle. He classified living things as either plants or animals. Then he divided each of these large
UNIT 4 TAXONOMY AND CLASSIFICATION CHAPTER 13 IN TEXT READ P. 4.0 CLASSIFICATION AND TAXONOMY 4.1 Define taxonomy 4.2 Discuss the reasons for classifying organisms 4.3 Define species and binomial nomenclature
Characteristics of Living Things Card Sort All of these terms are characteristics of organisms that allow scientists to classify (organize) them into groups. Chapter 9 in your text covers the characteristics
Bell Work: Think about your CD, video game, DVD or book collection at home. How would you separate this collection into different groups? What would the groups be? Try to come up with 4 or 5. Classification
Name: Period: Chapter 17 assignments Pages/Sections Date Assigned Date Due Topic: The Tree of Life Objective: How may we organize so many different organisms? The Tree of Life o organize organisms by structure
Biology 2201 Unit Test Holy Spirit High Mr. Pretty Name: ANSWER KEY 1.) Which of the following increases as you proceed down classification levels from kingdom to species? A) Activity B) Diversity among
Six Kingdoms By Cindy Grigg Trevor 1 The first scientist to try to classify organisms was the Greek scholar Aristotle. He classified living things as either plants or animals. Then he divided each of these
Yesterday, we explored various pieces of lab equipment. In the activity, each group was asked to sort the equipment into groups. How did you decide where each piece of equipment belongs? In a similar manner,
The Tree of Life Chapter 26 Origins of Life The Earth formed as a hot mass of molten rock about 4.5 billion years ago (BYA) -As it cooled, chemically-rich oceans were formed from water condensation Life
Phylogeny Chapter 26 Taxonomy Taxonomy: ordered division of organisms into categories based on a set of characteristics used to assess similarities and differences Carolus Linnaeus developed binomial nomenclature,
1 Classification is the grouping of objects based on similarities. Examine the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems. (six kingdoms) 2 Classification Classification is an important In understanding
17 Organizing Life s Diversity section 3 Domains and Kingdoms The most widely used biological classification system has six kingdoms within three domains. What You ll Learn major characteristics of the
Station 1 Explain how scientists use each item below to determine the evolutionary relationships among organisms. 1. Structural similarities: 2. Breeding behavior: 3. Geographical distribution: 4. Chromosome
18-1 Finding Order in Diversity 2 of 26 Natural selection and other processes have led to a staggering diversity of organisms. Biologists have identified and named about 1.5 million species so far. They
CLASSIFICATION LEVELS KINGDOM PHYLUM CLASS ORDER FAMILY GENUS SPECIES Classification of ME! Animalia Multicellular, mobile, eukaryotic, heterotroph Chordata Dorsal nerve chord, pharyngeal gill slits, bilateral
Essential idea: Species are named and classified using an internationally agreed system. Evolution and Biodiversity 5.3- Classification and Biodiversity Nature of science: Cooperation and collaboration