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1 Class: _ Date: _ Ch 17 Practice test 1. A segment of DNA that stores genetic information is called a(n) a. amino acid. b. gene. c. protein. d. intron. 2. In which of the following processes does change take place over the longest period of time? a. evolution b. respiration c. exocytosis d. photosynthesis 3. A protein is a polymer made up of which of the following monomers? a. lipids b. sugars c. amino acids d. nucleotides 4. A possible explanation for a set of observations is a(n) a. experiment. b. hypothesis. c. theory. d. variable. 5. Which structure in the cells in Figure 17.1 identifies them as eukaryotic cells? a. A b. B c. C d. D 6. When some of a plant's cells become root cells, and other cells form the plant's stem, the plant cells are going through a. meiosis. b. homeostasis. c. differentiation. d. mutation. 1

2 7. A group of living organisms that can produce fertile offspring is a a. community. b. species. c. clade. d. population. 8. The central dogma of molecular biology states that the flow of genetic information proceeds in one direction from DNA to RNA to protein. In what order do the processes that are involved take place? a. replication, mutation, transcription b. replication, transcription, translation c. sequencing, transformation, replication d. transcription, translation, transformation 9. Which of the structures in Figure 17.2 correctly depicts the structure of DNA? a. A b. B c. C d. D 10. Any change in an organism's DNA is considered a(n) a. intron. b. exon. c. mutation. d. translation. 11. Organisms are named and classified based on physical characteristics in a. evolutionary trees. b. Linnaean taxonomy. c. cladograms. d. molecular clocks. 12. Which of the following is the most abundant group of organisms on Earth? a. protista b. plants c. bacteria d. archaea 13. Which of the following lists Linnaean taxa in the correct order from general to specific? a. phylum, order, family, genus b. kingdom, order, class, phylum c. family, phylum, genus, species d. class, order, species, genus 2

3 14. In the Linnaean system of classification, which of the following is most commonly defined as a group of organisms that can breed and produce offspring? a. phylum b. species c. genus d. order 15. Which of the following uses mutation rates to measure evolutionary time? a. phylogenies b. binomial nomenclature c. molecular clocks d. clades 16. In the blank cladogram in Figure 17.1, what type of information would go on the lines labeled A? a. clades b. outgroupings c. common ancestors d. derived characters 17. In the cladogram in Figure 17.1, what type of information would go in the area labeled B? a. clades b. outgroupings c. common ancestors d. derived characters 18. In the 1860s, all single-celled organisms were placed in their own kingdom called a. Protista. b. Archaea. c. Eukarya. d. Bacteria. 19. How many domains are there in the most current tree of life? a. six b. five c. three d. two 20. How many kingdoms are there in the most current tree of life? a. two b. five c. three d. six 3

4 21. The modern classification system is mainly based on a. mutation rates. b. common ancestry. c. physical similarities. d. binomial nomenclature. 22. Figure 17.2 shows one set of genetic differences between humans and other animals. By this measure, which listed species is most related to humans? a. rabbit b. mouse c. turtle d. chimpanzee 23. Carl Woese divided the kingdom Monera into the kingdoms Bacteria and a. Plantae. b. Fungi. c. Protista. d. Archaea. 24. The name Canis lupis is an example of a. a domain and kingdom. b. one clade. c. binomial nomenclature. d. a phylogeny. 25. Which of the following types of evidence is considered the most accurate in classifying organisms, according to the majority of scientists? a. anatomical b. Linnaean c. physiological d. molecular 4

5 Short Answer 26. According to this classification, is the wolf more closely related to the bear or the bat? 27. How does Figure 17.3 illustrate the idea that each level is nested in the level above it? 28. What taxa do the bat and the shark share? 29. What animals shown in Figure 17.3 are in the order Carnivora? Use the exhibit to answer the questions that follow. 30. What characteristics do the organisms in the domains Bacteria and Archaea share? 31. Into which domain would you place a multicellular organism with a nucleus? 32. Which kingdoms were considered kingdoms in 1753 as well as today? 33. Compare this chart with Linnaean taxonomy. Name one similarity and one difference. 34. Scientists use taxonomy to determine the evolutionary history of organisms. _ 35. Taxonomy provides consistent ways to name organisms. _ 5

6 36. Scientific names of organisms consist of two English terms. _ 37. Two different organisms cannot have the same scientific name. _ 38. Genus is the basic biological unit in the Linnaean system of classification. _ 39. A genus is a taxonomic category that contains several families. _ 40. Under the Linnaean system of classification, organisms are grouped on the basis of similarities in structure. _ 41. Linnaeus devised eight levels of classification categories for living things. _ 42. The least inclusive group to which an organism can be assigned is its kingdom. _ 43. Kingdoms are subgroups of phyla. _ 44. A species is a larger taxonomic group than a genus. _ 45. Bird wings and insect wings are examples of analogous structures. _ 46. Organisms that have similar traits but evolved independently are the result of convergent evolution. _ 47. Cladistics is used to determine the sequence in which different groups of organisms evolved. _ 48. In modern systematics, studies of the changes in the skeletons of vertebrates have helped researchers to estimate the time at which each species began to evolve. _ 49. Comparing the sequence of DNA bases in the genes of several organisms is used to determine the order in which the organisms evolved. _ 50. All organisms in the kingdom Animalia are multicellular heterotrophs whose cells lack cell walls. _ 51. Archaea are eukaryotes that are characterized by several unique biochemical characteristics. _ 52. Traditionally, bacteria have been classified on the basis of their shape, cell wall composition, and metabolism. _ 6

7 53. Most organisms in the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia are multicellular. _ 54. Taxonomy is a. the study of life. b. the science of naming and classifying organisms. c. the evolutionary history of a species. d. the sequence in which different groups evolved. 55. An advantage of our scientific naming system is that a. common names mean the same in all countries. b. Latin names are easy to pronounce. c. biologists can communicate regardless of their native languages. d. organisms all have the same scientific name. 56. All scientific names of organisms must be a. unique and have two Latin words. b. general and use the species name. c. different and repeat the phylum name. d. similar and include the common name. 57. Linnaeus s two-word system for naming organisms is called a. taxonomic evolution. c. Greek polynomials. b. Genus species. d. binomial nomenclature. 58. In the Linnaean system of classification, the level that identifies one unique organism is the a. kingdom. c. genus. b. family. d. species. 59. Under the Linnaean system of classification, plants and animals are sorted into groups based on a. number and size. c. form and size. b. form and structure. d. number and structure. 60. The largest division that a group of organisms can belong to is a a. domain. c. genus. b. class. d. kingdom. 61. Placement in each level of classification is based on a. specific characteristics. c. shared characteristics. b. general characteristics. d. different characteristics. 62. Similar genera are grouped into a(n) a. phylum. c. family. b. class. d. order. 63. Analogous structures a. have a common size in organisms. b. perform the same function in organisms. c. have the same structure in organisms. d. evolve from a common ancestor. 7

8 64. Traditional systematics emphasizes the importance of a. derived characteristics. c. similar characteristics. b. unique characteristics. d. compared characteristics. 65. Similar features that evolve through convergent evolution are called a. analogous characters. c. environmental characters. b. homologous characters. d. genetic characters. 66. Convergent evolution produces analogous characters in different species as the result of a. similar environments. c. sharing a common ancestor. b. different environments. d. shared derived characters. 67. A phylogenetic tree differs from a cladogram in that a phylogenetic tree a. hypothesizes the time at which each group of organisms evolved. b. also indicates the new characteristics that evolved with each group of organisms c. only illustrates hypothesized relationships among groups of organisms. d. predicts the next group of organisms that is expected to evolve. 68. Studies of fossils of dinosaurs and birds show that a. feathers may not be an important difference between dinosaurs and birds. b. dinosaurs can be considered to be modern descendents of birds. c. the anatomies of the dinosaurs and birds are unrelated. d. dinosaurs and birds share many analogous characters. 69. A model used by biologists to represent evolutionary history among species is called a a. phylogram. c. histogram. b. cladogram. d. parallelogram. 70. Derived characters are traits a. that are shared by all species. b. that originated in a common ancestor. c. found in closely related species. d. found in distantly related species. 71. During Linnaeus time, scientists divided all living organisms into a. five phyla. c. three domains. b. four families. d. two kingdoms. 72. Which of the following terms is no longer used to describe a group of organisms in the modern classification system? a. Archaea c. Monera b. Eubacteria d. Protista 73. Sponges are animals that were once classified as a. bacteria. c. plants. b. fungi. d. protists. 74. Which of the following characteristics was used to reclassify sponges? a. body type c. cell walls b. cell type d. nutrition 8

9 75. The kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria were once grouped in a kingdom called a. Protista. c. Monera. b. Animalia. d. Plantae. 76. Four of the kingdoms include eukaryotes and the other two include a. plants. c. animals. b. fungi. d. prokaryotes. 77. Which of the following is not a characteristic used to differentiate kingdoms? a. cell type c. nutrition b. root system d. body type 78. Protista is an example of a a. kingdom. c. genus. b. class. d. species. 79. Which two kingdoms contain both unicellular and multicellular organisms? a. Archaea and Animalia c. Animalia and Fungi b. Protists and Bacteria d. Protista and Fungi 80. Bacteria : prokaryotes :: a. Fungi : prokaryotes c. Protista : eukaryotes b. Animalia : prokaryotes d. Archaea : eukaryotes 81. One difference between plants and animals is that plants are a. prokaryotic and animals are eukaryotic. b. eukaryotic and animals are prokaryotic. c. autotrophs and animals are heterotrophs. d. heterotrophs and animals are autotrophs. 82. The current system used for naming organisms was developed by. 83. The two-word system for naming organisms is called _. 84. The scientific name of an organism gives biologists a common way of regardless of their native languages. 85. All names assigned to organisms under the Linnaean system are in the language. 86. The unique two-word name for a species is its name. 87. All living things are grouped into one of three. 88. There are levels of classification in the modern classification system. 89. A kingdom contains many. 90. Classes with similar characteristics are assigned to a(n). 9

10 91. Each level of classification is based on shared by all the organisms it contains. 92. Homo habilis, Homo erectus, and Homo sapiens all belong to the same. 93. Traditionally, scientists have used differences in appearance and to classify organisms. 94. Unlike cladistics, traditional systematics places more on some traits than on others. 95. Analogous structures are found in taxa as a result of similar environmental conditions. 96. The type of evolution that results in similar characteristics found in different organisms as the result of selection within similar environments is called evolution. 97. The evolutionary history of a species is called its. 98. Shared derived characters are found in organisms that once shared a(n) ancestor. 99. A method of analysis that reconstructs phylogenies by inferring relationships based on shared characteristics is called A model developed by systematists that uses shared derived characters to show the evolutionary history of different organisms is called a(n) Cladistics is used to determine the in which different groups of organisms evolved Animals that appear early on a cladogram do not share as many of the same traits as the animals that appear later on the cladogram Modern systematic biologists use the rate of DNA mutations like a molecular clock Two kingdoms include prokaryotes, while four kingdoms include Bacteria have strong exterior cell walls made of An organism made of many cells that are permanently associated and that coordinate their activities is called a(n) organism Eukaryotes that are not fungi, plants, or animals are called. 10

11 108. Compare and contrast the make up and use of the scientific name of an organism and its species name. Kingdom Cell type Cell structure Body type Nutrition Prokaryoti Cell wall, Eubacteria a. b c peptidoglycan Autotrophic and Archaebacteria c. d. Unicellular heterotrophic Unicellular and Protista e. Mixed f. multicellular Unicellular and Fungi g. Cell wall, chitin multicellular h. i. Eukaryotic Cell wall, cellulose k. Eukaryotic No cell wall Multicellular j. Autotrophic l Refer to the table shown above. Complete the table by filling in the numbered cells. 11

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