Unit 9: Taxonomy (Classification) Notes

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1 Name Exam Date Class Unit 9: Taxonomy (Classification) Notes What is Classification? is when we place organisms into based on their. Classification is also known as. Taxonomists are scientists that & organisms Why Classify? Give organisms a accepted, eliminates from using names numerous & diverse (different) into logical order Carolus Linnaeus Called the of Classified organisms by their similar & Today s Taxonomic System is based on- 1. Physical Appearance (Genetic sequence- do they share a?) 4. - allows scientist to compare DNA sequences from two species to estimate how long it has been since they diverged from a common ancestor Classification Groups Taxon ( -plural) is a into which related organisms are placed There is a of groups (taxa) from broadest to most specific Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, species CATEGORIES OF TAXONOMY (OR TAXONS) 1. Domain (3)- group, few traits in common 2. Kingdom (6)- 2nd Broadest group, few traits in common 3. Phylum (~56) - make-up a kingdom 4. Class (~108)- make-up a phylum 5. Order (~1,000)- make-up a class 6. Family (~5320)- make-up an order 7. Genus (~10,000)- make-up a family 8. Species (~1.5 mil)- smallest, group, with many traits in common. Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Grape Soda!

2 Practice! Which taxon has the most organisms included? Which taxon has the fewest organisms? Which 2 organisms are most closely related? How do you know? Scientific Names & names organisms Uses language ( ) for all names Carolus Linnaeus developed the modern system of naming known as - name (Genus & species) Binominal Nomenclature (Scientific Name) 2 words using the & the Genus is ex. Canis Species is case ex. lupus Both Genus & species is or italicized ex. Canis lupus or Canis lupus = Wolf Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens = Dichotomous Keying Used to organisms Characteristics given in both characteristics and either go to another set of OR the organism

3 PRACTICE!! 1) Identify the organism using the dichotomous key Figure 1. Write its scientific name properly. Figure 1 2) Using the Chart A, which 2 organisms are more closely related? Why? I chose &, because Chart A Question 3 Table B 3) Using the Table B, which 2 organisms are more closely related? Why? I chose &, because Domains Most category Larger than a kingdom There are 3 o includes the kingdoms Protists, Fungi, & Animals o corresponds to the kingdom Eubacteria o corresponds to the kingdom Archaebacteria

4 The 6 Kingdoms (Eubacteria and Archaebacteria) -, with or without peptidoglycan in Protista Eukaryotes,, not fungi, plants, or animals Fungi Eukaryotes, multicellular (except yeasts), heterotrophic, chitin in cell walls Plantae Eukaryotes,, autotrophic, cell wall containing cellulose Animalia Eukaryotes, multicellular, heterotrophic, no cell wall The Kingdom Eubacteria Common name: Unicellular Prokaryotes in cell wall Ecologically diverse Basic shapes are cocci, bacilli, spirilla Reproduce both and The Kingdom Archaebacteria Cell wall contain peptidoglycan Unicellular Prokaryotes Cell membrane contains not found in other organisms Live in environments: Brine (high ) pools volcanic hot ( ) springs Acidic pools black organic mud (no oxygen) The Kingdom Protista aka junkyard A classification problem consists of organisms that be classified as,, or Most unicellular, some colonial and some and Some move with flagella, pseudopods or cilia Animal-like, plant-like and fungus-like groups Reproduce by and

5 The Kingdom Fungi : most feed on dead, matter by secreting digestive enzymes into their food source then it into their bodies Cell walls of Most ; some unicellular (yeast) The Kingdom Plantae All Non motile cannot move from place to place with cellulose Mostly photosynthetic Kingdom Animalia All Multicellular Heterotrophic Most have mobility No or Incredible diversity Ectotherm, any so-called - animal; that is, any animal whose regulation of body depends on sources, such as or a heated rock surface. The ectotherms include the fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates. Endotherm, so-called - animals; that is, those that a body internally- independent of the environment. The endotherms primarily include the birds and mammals.

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