Domains and Kingdoms. Images, from left to right: Cholera bacteria, Volvox colony, Strep bacteria

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1 Domains and Kingdoms Images, from left to right: Cholera bacteria, Volvox colony, Strep bacteria

2 THE DOMAINS A domain is the broadest level in the classification of life. All living organisms belong to one of 3 domains: ARCHAEA BACTERIA EUKARYA Do you remember which one you belong to?

3 I. ARCHAEA Domain Archaea contains one kingdom also named Archaea. Comes from a Greek word meaning ancient. In fact, the last common ancestor of all life on Earth may have been archaea that s how old they are! Archaea are Prokaryotic (does not have a nucleus) and unicellular. Archaea are often found in extreme environments where other life cannot survive. For example, these extremophiles can be found in extremely hot, cold, salty, oxygen-free and/or acidic environments such as in hot springs, volcanic environments, salt lakes or in the guts of animals.

4 Archaea - continued Archaea have cell walls that are unique and do not contain peptidoglycan like bacteria do. Metabolism (how they get their energy): Some are lithotrophs (inorganic matter like Sulphur or ammonia) Some are phototrophs (using light but not for photosynthesis) Some are organotrophs (organic matter including gut-dwelling) 3 MainTypes of Archaea: o o o Thermophiles live in above boiling temps Halophile salt concentration 5 times greater than the ocean Methanogens produce methane gas as a byproduct of metabolism Archaebacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission, budding or fragmentation.

5 II. BACTERIA Domain Bacteria contains one kingdom also named Bacteria (Eubacteria). Bacteria are prokaryotic. Bacteria are microscopic,unicellular organisms. There are more bacteria in our bodies than there are cells in our body!

6 Bacteria - continued Bacteria have cell walls made of peptidoglycan Bacteria get their nutrition in a variety of ways: Photoautotrophs Photoheterotrophs Lithotrophs Organotrophs Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission (as quickly as every 10 minutes!)

7 Bacteria - Continued Bacteria have 3 main shapes: spherical (coccus), rod (bacillus), and spiral (spirilla).

8 III. EUKARYA Are eukaryotic (cells have a nucleus). The 4 Kingdoms found in this Domain are: Plantae Animalia Fungi Protista

9 Kindom Protista All Protists are eukaryotic and most can MOVE! Most are single-celled; some are simple, multi-cellular organisms; some are colonial. Protists reproduce asexually or sexually Some protists are animal-like (protozoa); some are plantlike (algae); some are both (euglena); some are fungus-like (slime molds).

10 Protista continued Animal-like protists are heterotrophic (or parasitic), lack a cell wall, and can move by using a flagellum, cilia, or pseudopod. Plant-like protists photosynthesize and produce O2. Plant-like protists have cell walls made of cellulose or silica (diatoms). Plant-like protists may be single-celled (algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates) or multi-cellular (brown, green, red algae, kelp, aka, seaweed).

11 Plant-like Protists

12 Animal-like Protists

13 Protista - cotinued Fungus-like protists can be single-celled, multi-celled, or plasmodial (one mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei). Fungus-like protists are saprotrophic absorb nutrients from dead/decaying matter (decomposers) Fungus-like protists can reproduce asexually or sexually and release spores similar to fungus. Cell walls are composed of cellulose (like plants not chitin like fungus)

14 Slime molds and Water Molds

15 Kingdom Fungi All Fungus are eukaryotic. Fungus can be single-celled (yeast) or multi-cellular (mushroom). Fugus break down and absorb nutrients from their surroundings (heterotrophic / saprotrophic). Fungus do not photosynthesize or move.

16 Kindom Fungi - continued Fungus reproduce asexually through spores, budding, fragmentation or fission; or sexually. Fungal cell walls are composed of chitin (a polysaccharide that is also found in the exoskeleton of insects).

17 Kingdom Plantea Plants are eukaryotic and multicellular Plants have cell walls made of cellulose Plants make their own food (autotrophic) through photosynthesis. Plants reproduce asexually or sexually.

18 Kingdom Animalia Animal cells are multi-cellular, eukaryotic and contain a cell membrane not a cell wall. Animals have special senses that allow them to respond to their environment. Animals can usually move some, like sponges, have very limited ability to move. Animals feed off of other life forms (heterotrophic).

19

20 Do you remember. In which domain would you find an organism catagorized that lives in the Great Salt Lake in Utah? Archaea In which domain would you find the E. coli bacteria? Bacteria How many Kingdoms are in the domain Eukarya? 4 Can you name them? Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

21 Do you remember How do plants get nourishment? Photosynthesis Name 2 characteristics of plant cells. 1. Eukaryotic 2. Cell wall What 3 other organisms are Protists similar to? Plants, animals and/or Fungus Are protists eukaryotic or prokaryotic? Eukaryotic Are fungus single-celled or multi-cellular? They may be either How do animals get nourishment? By consuming other living things

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