The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy.

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1 Chapter 18

2 Key Idea: Biologists use taxonomic systems to organize their knowledge of organisms. These systems attempt to provide consistent ways to name and categorize organisms. The practice of naming and classifying organisms is called taxonomy.

3 About 1.7 million species have been named and described by scientists. Scientists think that millions more are undiscovered. Taxonomic systems use categories to organize organisms.

4 What is the problem with common names of species? Taxonomic systems do not use common names, which may be confusing because they are different in different places.

5 Key Idea: All scientific names are made up of two Latin or Latin-like terms. Genus is when a taxon used to group similar species. binomial nomenclature is a two-word naming system

6 Various naming systems were invented in the early days of European biology. A simpler and more consistent system was developed by Swedish biologist Carl Linnaeus in the 1750s. His system included the genus name and a single descriptive word for each species.

7 The unique, two-part name for a species is now called a scientific name. No two species can have the same scientific name. All scientific names are made up of two Latin or Latin-like terms.

8 Why did Linnaeus devise a new naming system? A simpler and more consistent system

9 Key Idea: In the Linnaean system of classification, organisms are grouped at successive levels of the hierarchy based on similarities in their form and structure.

10 The eight basic levels of modern classification are domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species.

11 Each level has its own set of names for taxa at that level Each taxon is identified based on shared traits. The category domain has been invented since Linnaeus time.

12 The category kingdom encompasses large groups, such as plants, animals, or fungi. Six kingdoms fit within the three domains. A phylum is a subgroup within kingdom. A class is a subgroup within a phylum.

13 An order is a subgroup within a class. A family is a subgroup within an order. A genus (plural, genera) is a subgroup within family. Each genus is made up of species with uniquely shared traits, such that the species are thought to be closely related.

14 How many kingdoms are in the Linnaean system? Six

15 Key Idea: Scientists have traditionally used similarities in appearance and structure to group organisms. However, this approach has proven problematic.

16 Some groups look similar but turn out to be distantly related. Other groups look different but turn out to be closely related.

17 What is systematics? Using similar structures and features to group organisms

18 Key Idea: Grouping organisms by similarity is often assumed to reflect phylogeny, but inferring phylogeny is complex in practice. Phylogeny is the ancestral relationships between species.

19 Not all similar characteristics are inherited from a common ancestor. Through the process of convergent evolution, similarities may evolve in groups that are not closely related. Similar features may evolve because the groups have adopted similar habitats or lifestyles.

20 Similarities that arise through convergent evolution are called analogous characters.

21 Key Idea: Cladistic analysis is used to select the most likely phylogeny among a given set of organisms. Cladistics is a method of analysis that infers phylogenies by careful comparisons of shared characteristics.

22 Cladistics focuses on finding characters that are shared between different groups because of shared ancestry. A derived character is one that evolved in one group but not the other.

23 What does a cladogram show? A cladogram is a phylogenetic tree that is drawn in a specific way.

24

25 Key Idea: Biologists compare many kinds of evidence and apply logic carefully in order to infer phylogenies. Morphology refers to the physical structure or anatomy of organisms. Molecular evidence includes genetic information to infer phylogenies.

26 What is an example of morphological data? The fossil record

27 The principle of parsimony holds that the simplest explanation for something is the most reasonable, unless strong evidence exists against that explanation.

28 Given two possible cladograms, the one that implies the fewest character changes between points is preferred.

29 What kinds of molecular data inform cladistics? Sequence data and genomic data

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