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1 Assessment Chapter Test B Classification of Organisms In the space provided, write the letter of the description that best matches the term or phrase. 1. Archaea 2. Bacteria a. kingdom; includes Euglena and amoebas b. domain; includes chemosynthetic bacteria 3. Eukarya 4. Animalia 5. Archaebacteria 6. Eubacteria 7. Fungi 8. Protista 9. order 10. class 11. genus 12. phylum c. kingdom; includes mushrooms and molds d. kingdom; includes humans and insects e. kingdom; includes disease-causing bacteria f. domain; includes both plants and animals g. kingdom; includes chemosynthetic bacteria h. domain; includes disease-causing bacteria i. group of related genera j. group of related classes k. group of related species l. group of related orders m. group of related families 13. family In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 14. Which of the following taxonomic categories refers only to plants? a. phylum c. division b. class d. kingdom 15. Linnaeus grouped structurally similar organisms of a single type into the category called a a. species. c. class. b. genus. d. order. 16. The species identifier denoting the species of the leopard frog, Rana pipiens, is a. leopard. c. Rana. b. frog. d. pipiens. Modern Biology 133 Chapter Test

2 Classification of Organisms, Chapter Test B continued 17. The main criterion used by Linnaeus to classify organisms is their a. phylogeny. c. morphology. b. taxonomy. d. habitat. 18. The branch of biology that names and groups organisms according to their characteristics and evolutionary history is a. morphology. c. phylogeny. b. taxonomy. d. embryology. 19. An ancestry diagram made by grouping organisms according to their shared derived characters is called a a. phylogenetic diagram. c. phylum. b. taxonomic category. d. cladogram. 20. A modern systematic taxonomist would likely consider the following when classifying an organism: a. the fossil record, morphology, embryological development, and macromolecules b. the fossil record, morphology, embryological development, and habitat c. behavior, morphology, embryology, and habitat d. the fossil record, macromolecules, habitat, and embryological development 21. The evolutionary history of an organism is its a. morphology. c. classification. b. taxonomy. d. phylogeny. 22. In the table below, which level of classification is represented by the cell labeled A? a. kingdom c. division b. phylum d. order 23. In the table below, which of the following best fits the cell labeled B? a. sapiens c. Homo b. Canis d. Animalia Classification of Three Different Organisms Organism Class A Family Genus Bacterium Scotobacteria Spirochaetales Spirochaetaceae Cristispira Box elder Angiospermae Sapindales Aceraceae Acer Human Mammalis Primates Hominidae B Modern Biology 134 Chapter Test

3 Classification of Organisms, Chapter Test B continued Read each question, and write your answer in the space provided. 24. List the levels of classification developed by Linnaeus, from the broadest category to the most specific. 25. Compare and contrast Aristotle s system of classification with that of Linnaeus. 26. The kingdom Protista includes a wide variety of organisms that are more distantly related to each other than plants are to animals. Why are they grouped together in one kingdom? 27. What does a cladogram of a group of organisms represent. 28. Explain how embryological evidence helps to define phylogeny. 29. Compare and contrast the six-kingdom system of classification with the three-domain system. What evidence prompted the development of the three-domain system? Modern Biology 135 Chapter Test

4 Classification of Organisms, Chapter Test B continued Follow the directions given below. 30. The phylogenetic diagram below shows one hypothesis about the relationships among the Galápagos finches that Darwin catalogued. The diagram is based on morphological evidence alone. Use the tree to answer the questions below. C. heliobates Camarhynchus pallidus G. fortis G. magnirostris C. pauper Woodpeckerlike C. psittacula G. fuliginosa G. scandens G. conirostris C. parvulus Seed-eating Cactus-eating G. difficilis Certhidea olivacea Pinaroloxias inornata C. crassirostris Insectivorous Vegetarian Ground finches Tree finches Warblerlike Common ancestor a. Early finches diverged into ground finches and tree finches (which include the warblerlike finches). What environmental pressures might have caused this divergence? b. Compare the number of insectivorous species with the number of cactuseating species. What does this suggest about the diversity of food sources for both types of birds? c. The finches environments and food are noted on this tree, but this information did not contribute to shaping the diagram. The diagram derives from the birds morphology. What morphological feature might all three seedeating ground finches have in common? d. What evidence might a cladistic taxonomist use to propose that any two species in this diagram share a close evolutionary relationship? e. What kinds of information available to modern taxonomists might cause them to reconsider the branching patterns shown on this diagram? Modern Biology 136 Chapter Test

5 TEACHER RESOURCE PAGE Population Genetics and Speciation Chapter Test B (Advanced) 1. c 12. c 2. f 13. b 3. a 14. a 4. h 15. b 5. e 16. c 6. b 17. b 7. d 18. d 8. g 19. c 9. a 20. a 10. b 21. d 11. c 22. In a small population, an individual accounts for a relatively large fraction of the total number of alleles. Thus, the reproductive success of an individual can have a large impact on allele frequencies in the population. 23. no net mutations; no immigration or emigration; large population; random mating; no selection 24. Gene flow results in changes in allele frequencies. 25. The graphic representation of a trait in a population is a bell-shaped curve because the average form of the trait is found in most members, while extreme forms of the trait are found in few members. 26. In punctuated equilibrium, a species does not change for a long period of time but then changes rapidly over a short period of time. In gradual evolutionary change, a species changes slowly and steadily over a long period of time. 27. allele frequencies: R = 10/16 = 0.625; r = 6/16 = 0.375; phenotype frequencies: red = 3/8 = 0.375, pink = 4/8 = 0.5, white = 1/8 = Morphological species are classified based on the internal and/or external structure and appearance of an organism. Biological species are classified by whether a group of organisms can successfully interbreed, but cannot breed with other groups. 29. To be in genetic equilibrium, individuals in a population must only mate randomly. In sexual selection, females choose to mate with males based on certain traits. 30. (a) stabilizing (b) disruptive (c) about 6.0 cm in 1940; about 3.25 and 8.0 cm in 1980 (d) The fish prefers mediumsize (4 cm 7 cm long) leeches (e) Answers will vary. For example, fish in captivity could be offered a number of leeches ranging from 1 cm to 10 cm long, and the fishes preferences could be noted. Classification of Organisms Chapter Test A (General) 1. c 11. c 2. d 12. c 3. d 13. d 4. a 14. c 5. b 15. d 6. d 16. e 7. a 17. a 8. b 18. b 9. b 19. f 10. d 20. c 21. Animalia 22. Archaebacteria 23. Fungi 24. Eukarya 25. Eubacteria Classification of Organisms Chapter Test B (Advanced) 1. b 13. i 2. h 14. c 3. f 15. a 4. d 16. d 5. g 17. c 6. e 18. b 7. c 19. d 8. a 20. a 9. m 21. d 10. l 22. d 11. k 23. c 12. j 24. kingdom, phylum/division, class, order, family, genus, species 25. Aristotle grouped organisms as plants and animals, as did Linnaeus. Aristotle also grouped organisms by habitat. Linnaeus grouped morphologically related organisms into a seven-level hierarchy. Modern Biology 419 Answer Key

6 TEACHER RESOURCE PAGE 26. Kingdom Protista includes all eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi. It contains unicellular and multicellular organisms that lack specialized tissues. 27. A cladogram for a group of organisms represents one possible interpretation for the evolutionary relationships between the organisms in the group being investigated. 28. Animals that have similar embryological development probably shared a relatively recent ancestor. 29. In the three-domain system, domain Archaea consists of kingdom Archaebacteria; domain Bacteria is composed of kingdom Eubacteria; and domain Eukarya is composed of kingdoms Protista, Plantae, Fungi, and Animalia. The three-domain system is based on comparisons of rrna, which indicates how long ago any two organisms shared a common ancestor. 30. (a) This divergence might have been caused by a decreased availability of food preferred by the ancestral birds. (b) Insects probably were a more plentiful food source than cactus. (c) Their beaks are adapted for cracking seeds. (d) A cladistic taxonomist might use evidence of shared derived characters, such as a beak shape that differed from that of an ancestor. (e) analyses of genetic material Introduction to Ecology Chapter Test A (General) 1. d 12. b 2. a 13. c 3. b 14. b 4. c 15. d 5. d 16. f 6. b 17. g 7. b 18. d 8. c 19. a 9. d 20. b 10. b 21. c 11. c 22. e 23. Without bacteria and fungi, dead organisms would not decompose, and the nutrients within their bodies would be unavailable to other living organisms. 24. Energy is always lost when it is transferred from one trophic level to the next. 25. Producers capture from the sun all the energy for an ecosystem. Introduction to Ecology Chapter Test B (Advanced) 1. d 11. a 2. f 12. c 3. g 13. b 4. h 14. b 5. a 15. c 6. c 16. b 7. b 17. c 8. e 18. b 9. c 19. b 10. d 20. A trophic level indicates an organism s position in a sequence of energy transfer levels in an ecosystem that is occupied by one or more types of organisms. An organism s trophic level is determined by its source of food. 21. Models help ecologists understand the environment and make predictions about how it might change. Models are limited in their applications because they cannot account for every variable in an environment. 22. A species with a broad niche can live in a variety of places and can use a variety of resources. 23. biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, and organism 24. Trees, grass, animals, flowers, and all other living components are biotic factors. Sunlight, seasonal changes, storms, fires, and earthquakes are some examples of abiotic factors. 25. Each is a response that allows organisms to avoid unfavorable environmental conditions. 26. A regulator could tolerate a wider range of environmental conditions, because their internal conditions are kept at the optimal range over a wide range of external conditions. 27. photosynthesis and chemosynthesis 28. The three major processes in the water cycle are evaporation, precipitation, and transpiration. Evaporation is the change from liquid water to water Modern Biology 420 Answer Key

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