Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 6: Evolution & The Diversity of Life

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1 Wake Acceleration Academy - Biology Note Guide Unit 6: Evolution & The Diversity of Life Extra Resources Website: Module 1: Darwin and Natural Selection Vocabulary Term Charles Darwin On the Origin of Species Naturalist Definition (You may use an Internet search to help define terms) Speciation survival of the fittest (as it pertains to Biology) Key Questions: 1. On which islands did Charles Darwin make observations to create his theories? 2. Were the lifeforms on all of the islands the exact same to each other? Were they the exact same to animals on other parts of the world? 3. Natural selection is a specific mechanism of evolution in which the heritable traits (characteristics) help an organism do what? 4. Name the five points that are basis of Darwin s theory of natural selection. Review the kitten example to better understand the significance of the five points of natural selection. 1

2 5. Darwin s study of finches showed that the birds had variations in their beaks. Why are minor variations within species important for survival? 6. How did Lyell s work influence Darwin? 7. How did Malthus work influence Darwin? 8. How did Lamarck s work influence Darwin? 9. What did Darwin and Lamarck disagree on? 10. Why does the world today believe Darwin s theory and not Lamarck s? Darwin and Earlier Scientists (Slide 20) Complete the table below: Year Scientist Contribution 1785 Theory of the Earth: Earth s land and rock formations change over time 1798 Essay on the Principle of Population: If plants & animals had unlimited offspring then a scarcity of resources (food, shelter etc.) will result. Therefore, the competition for resources helps to control population growth 1809 Philosophie zoologique: Theory of Acquired Inheritance; traits are developed through the use and disuse of organs, and they are passed on to future generations Principles of Geology: The Earth has been experience change since it was born. Mountains, oceans, lakes and rivers are a result of this change. The Earth is still changing to this day. Studied plant and animal distribution/similarities Origin of Species: Species have evolved over the course of many years from a common ancestor. 2

3 Module 2: Adaptive Evolution Vocabulary Term Definition (You may use an Internet search to help define terms) Adaptive Evolution (include an example) Gene Pool Genetic Drift Genetic Drift: Bottleneck Effect Genetic Drift: Founder Effect Key Questions: 1. Complete the statement (slide 9): It's important to remember that only a change in a trait results in adaptive evolution, not a or accidental change. 2. Review Question: Are all mutations harmful? Are all mutations beneficial? 3. How do viruses act as a source of genetic variation and thus adaptive evolution? 4. How do alleles and genetic information change during gene flow? 5. How does genetic drift effect genetic variation? 3

4 Sources of Genetic Variation (Slides 11) Complete the table Source Definition/Description/Cause Example Consequences (slide 18) Allele Frequency Mutations Viruses Sexual Reproduction Gene Flow 4

5 Patterns of Natural Selection (Slides of 25) Pattern Description (Slide 21) Butterfly Example (Slide 22) Directional Selection Disruptive Selection Stabilizing Selection 5

6 Module 3: Speciation Vocabulary Term Species (as described by Ernst Mayr 1942) Definition (You may use an Internet search to help define terms) Review: Gene Pool Reproductive Isolation Adaptive Radiation Convergent Evolution Key Questions: 1. When do prezygotic barriers occur? 2. What are some examples of prezygotic barriers? 3. When do postzygotic barriers occur? 4. Why is a mule (hybrid animal) considered to be an example of a postzygotic barrier? 5. Will geographic isolation always lead to the formation of a new species? Why or why not? 6. Why do eastern and western meadowlarks not mate even though they may live in the same area? 6

7 Forms of Reproductive Isolation (Slides 9 through 11) Form Description Example Geographic Isolation Behavioral Isolation Temporal Isolation Mechanical Isolation 7

8 Mechanisms of Speciation (Slides 13 through 16) Mechanism Translation Definition/Description Example Allopatric Speciation other country Sympatric Speciation same country 8

9 Adaptive Radiation and Convergent Evolution (Slide 19) Compare adaptive radiation and convergent evolution. Place similarities in the middle of the section. 9

10 Module 4: Phylogeny Vocabulary Term Definition (You may use an Internet search to help define terms) Fossil Paleontology Phylogeny Vestigial Structure (give an example) Example: Tailbones in humans Analogous Structures (give an example) Homologous Structures (give an example) Mass Extinction Cladistics Key Questions: 1. Can scientists determine/estimate the age of rocks? 2. Explain the morphological change in horses due to their change in eating habits (went from soft grass in forests to hard grasses in plains) 3. How do scientists use fossils to understand evolution of organisms? 4. What do analogous structures indicate about evolutionary relationships? 10

11 5. What do homologous structures indicate about evolutionary relationships? 6. How does embryology help determine phylogeny? 7. How does molecular biology (studying genes) provide evidence for evolution? 8. Which technique is more reliable in phylogeny molecular biology or fossil records? 9. What does differences in amino acid sequences tell us about two organisms? 10. What is one of the biggest problems with amino acid sequence method? 11. What is DNA hybridization? How is it used in phylogeny? 12. During which period was the mass extinction of the dinosaurs? 13. During which era was the mass extinction of the dinosaurs? 14. After a mass extinction, what happens to the species that survive? 15. What information is displayed on a cladogram? 11

12 Biologists use this evidence to reconstruct evolutionary history and create the tree of life. The tree of life shows the evolutionary interrelations of different organisms that originated from a common ancestral form. The ancestors lie in the tree trunk, while organisms that have arisen from them are placed at the ends of tree branches. Closely related groups are located on branches close to one another, indicating a closer relationship. Example of a Phylogenic Tree or Tree of Life Cladogram Example: 12

13 Module 5: The Tree of Life Vocabulary Term Definition (You may use an Internet search to help define terms) Taxonomy Nomenclature Taxon Review: Phylogeny Molecular Clock Hypothesis Key Questions: 1. What are the seven levels in order (most general to most specific) for Linnaeus s hierarchical system of classification? 2. What were the two kingdoms that Linnaeus identified? 3. Which two categories make up the scientific name of an organism? 4. The scientific name is always written in italics. Which part of the name is capitalized? Which part of the name is in lowercase lettering? 5. How were scientists able to distinguish between bacteria and archaebacteria? 6. Linnaeus s method of taxonomy only had two kingdoms: Plantae and Animalia. Whittaker s method has five kingdoms. Why did Whittaker add more kingdoms? What are the four kingdoms that replaced Plantae in Whittaker s system? 13

14 7. Woese developed the six kingdom system by dividing Monera in to two separate kingdoms. Why did Woese see this as necessary? What are the two new kingdoms called? 8. What are names of the three domains? Classification Comparison from Slide 18 Complete the table below. Three Domain Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Classification Six Kingdom Classification Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell Type Organization Cell Wall Nutrition Examples 14

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